Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Genetic Relatedness

  • Pierrick BourratEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1358-1
  • 112 Downloads

Synonyms

Definition

The probability that an allele in one individual is also found in another individual.

Introduction

Relatedness is an important parameter in kin selection or more generally inclusive fitness theory. One significant puzzle in the history of evolutionary theorizing is the evolution of altruism. Kin selection, with the use of the relatedness parameter, often denoted by r, permits to solve this puzzle.

The Puzzle of Altruism

A classical approach to natural selection tells us that only traits which confer a heritable fitness (reproductive) advantage to their bearer will evolve by natural selection. For instance, suppose a population of organisms which vary in height and in which the taller an organism is the higher its reproductive output. We could imagine that the organisms are giraffes and that giraffes which are taller have access to leaves on...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Bourke, A. F. (2011). Principles of social evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dawkins, R. (1976). The selfish gene. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Gardner, A., & West, S. A. (2010). Greenbeards. Evolution, 64, 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hamilton, W. D. (1963). The evolution of altruistic behavior. The American Naturalist, 97, 354–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hamilton, W. D. (1964a). The genetical evolution of social behaviour. I. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hamilton, W. D. (1964b). The genetical evolution of social behaviour. II. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 7, 17–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lewontin, R. C. (1970). The units of selection. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 1, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Trivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology, 46, 35–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Williams, G. C. (1966). Adaptation and natural selection: A critique of some current evolutionary thought. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Wilson, E. O. (1990). Success and dominance in ecosystems: The case of the social insects. Nordbunte: Ecology Institute.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of Sydney, department of Philosophy & Charles Perkins CentreCamperdownAustralia
  2. 2.Department of PhilosophyMacquarie UniversityNorth RydeAustralia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Douglas Sellers
    • 1
  1. 1.Penn State Worthington ScrantonScrantonUSA