Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Paternal Grandfather Invests Least

  • Mirkka DanielsbackaEmail author
  • Antti O. Tanskanen
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1187-1



Grandparents can invest a large amount of time and resources in their grandchildren. However, all grandparents do not invest equally in their grandchildren and usually paternal grandfathers are the ones who invest the least of all grandparent types.


Males in several species invest in offspring as a function of paternity certainty (Platek and Shackelford 2006). This applies to humans as well (e.g., Alvergne et al. 2009), although among mammals, humans are an exception. Human males typically invest in their offspring unlike 95% of males of mammalian species, but human males also have potential uncertainty in their relationship to their children. While women can be sure that the child they gave birth to is biologically related to them, men can never be 100% certain...

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Population Research Institute of FinlandHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.University of TurkuTurkuFinland

Section editors and affiliations

  • Nicole Barbaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyOakland UniversityRochesterUSA