Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science

Living Edition
| Editors: Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford

Attention

  • Marios ConstantinouEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1105-1

Synonyms

Definition

The cognitive and behavioral process during which one becomes actively, and consciously, aware of one or several stimuli, while cognitively suppressing irrelevant stimuli. Attention is an executive function.

Introduction

George is 8 years old and he is attending the third grade of elementary school. During his first year of elementary school, when he was 6 years old, he was diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, predominantly inattentive presentation) as he was meeting the diagnostic criteria of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association 2013). Specifically, George met six of the seven DSM-5 criteria for inattention, namely:
  1. (a)

    He was failing to pay good attention and made careless mistakes

     
  2. (b)

    He could not focus for long periods of time

     
  3. (c)

    He was often failing to listen when others were speaking to him

     
  4. (d)

    He would not...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gitelman, D. R. (2003). Attention and its disorders: Imaging in clinical neuroscience. British Medical Bulletin, 65, 21–34.  https://doi.org/10.1093/bmb/65.1.21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ingram, J. C. L. (2007). Neurolinguistics: An introduction to spoken language processing and its disorders (1. publ., 3. print. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79640-8.Google Scholar
  4. Oken, B. S., Salinsky, M. C., & Elsas, S. M. (2006). Vigilance, alertness, or sustained attention: Physiological basis and measurement. Clinical Neurophysiology, 117, 1885–1901.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2006.01.017.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Pinto, Y., van der Leij, A. R., Sligte, I. G., Lamme, V. A. F., & Scholte, H. S. (2013). Bottom-up and top-down attention are independent. Journal of Vision, 13, 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1167/13.3.16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Sohlberg, M. M., & Mateer, C. A. (2001). Improving attention and managing attentional problems: Adapting rehabilitation techniques to adults with ADD. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 931, 359–375.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05790.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Zhong-Lin, L. (2008). Mechanisms of attention: Psychophysics, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuroscience. Japanese Journal of Psychonomic Science, 27, 38–45.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus

Section editors and affiliations

  • Menelaos Apostolou
    • 1
  1. 1.University of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus