Diagnostic Algorithm for Constipation and Obstructed Defecation

  • Guido Manfredi
  • Claudio Londoni
  • Massimo Bellini
  • Elisabetta Buscarini
Living reference work entry


Chronic constipation is a common and disabling problem in many patients all over the world, in particular in elderly. There are two main pathophysiologies, but with possible overlapping situations: disorders of transit and evacuation disorders.

Functional constipation has many causes, including the kind of diet and lifestyle, and it can also be secondary to medications, other many medical conditions, and/or disease. Alarm symptoms sometimes coexist, and it is mandatory to underline these conditions in order to manage the therapeutical approach properly.

Treatment options for chronic constipation include changes in lifestyle, drugs, and rehabilitation of the perineum as well as biofeedback therapies; commonly first-level therapeutical approach is undertaken before the diagnosis of chronic constipation will be cleared, but understanding its etiology is necessary to determine the most appropriate and tailored therapeutic option; history and physical examination of the patients can orientate in an intricate instrumental diagnostic approach which consists of imaging and functional tests.

Our aim is try to clarify on these complicated diagnostic choices in order to optimize therapeutical interventions.


Pelvic Organ Prolapse Pelvic Floor Muscle Chronic Constipation Anorectal Manometry Functional Constipation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guido Manfredi
    • 1
  • Claudio Londoni
    • 1
  • Massimo Bellini
    • 2
  • Elisabetta Buscarini
    • 1
  1. 1.Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy Unit – Maggiore HospitalOspedale MaggioreCremaItaly
  2. 2.Gastrointestinal Unit – Department of GastroenterologyUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

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