Encyclopedia of Bioastronautics

Living Edition
| Editors: Laurence R. Young, Jeffrey P. Sutton

Space Radiation: Central Nervous System Risks

  • Gregory A. NelsonEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10152-1_84-1



The central nervous system which consists of the brain, spinal cord, and retina.


The energy absorbed per unit mass in units of gray (Gy) where 1 Gy = 1 J/kg.


A region of the brain in the temporal lobe associated with learning and memory. It has a well-defined layered anatomy that facilitates electrophysiological studies and is associated with numerous animal behavioral tests.


High charge (= atomic number, Z) energetic particles.

LET or linear energy transfer

The energy deposited per unit length of a charged particle’s track and is proportional to Z2/v2 where Z is the charge and v is the velocity.


Long-term potentiation, a long-term elevation of synaptic strength in response to stimulation, which represents a tissue-level analog to memory trace formation.

MeV or million electron volts

The energy acquired by an electron moving across a voltage of 106V and, when divided by the mass of a particle in atomic mass units (amu, u or n), is the standard...

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departments of Radiation Medicine & Basic SciencesLoma Linda UniversityLoma LindaUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Kathryn D. Held
    • 1
  1. 1.Radiation OncologyMassachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA