Encyclopedia of Bioastronautics

Living Edition
| Editors: Laurence R. Young, Jeffrey P. Sutton

Cardiovascular Deconditioning and Exercise

  • Michael B. Stenger
  • Steven S. Laurie
  • Stuart M. C. Lee
  • Steven H. Platts
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10152-1_20-1

Definition

Cardiovascular deconditioning are changes in function or structure of the heart and blood vessels in response to a space flight or reduced gravity environment, including weightlessness and radiation exposure, that may result in impaired or altered responses at rest or during stress. Exercise includes physical activity to prevent deconditioning during space flight or reduced gravity as well as the physical work required to perform work inside and outside of the spacecraft.

Introduction

Human physiological responses are well designed to operate in Earth’s gravitational environment in which we exist, yet standing up on Earth imposes a substantial challenge to the cardiovascular system because the heart is located above about 75% of the total blood volume in the body. Upon standing, the increase in the hydrostatic pressure gradient acting along the length of the body reduces the amount of blood returning to the heart by 500–1000 mL, which triggers a complex reflex response...

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael B. Stenger
    • 1
  • Steven S. Laurie
    • 2
  • Stuart M. C. Lee
    • 2
  • Steven H. Platts
    • 1
  1. 1.NASA Johnson Space CenterHoustonUSA
  2. 2.KBRwyleHoustonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Peter Norsk
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Space MedicineBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Biomedical Research & Environmental Sciences DivisionNASA, Johnson Space CenterHoustonUSA