Living reference work entry


One challenge faced by astronauts on long-duration missions is the lack of full-spectrum medical capabilities, especially when it comes to healing and/or replacing damaged tissues. One solution is three-dimensional (3D) printing. 3D printing is driving major innovations in medicine. Advances in bioprinting have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells, and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is also being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics, and medicine, but 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue, and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for space-based applications.


3D printed tissue Biofabrication Bio-ink Biomaterial Biopaper Bioprint Bioreactor Cells Cell viability Hydrogel Mironov Organ Organoid Scaffolding Tissue Vascularize 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Embry-Riddle Aeronautical UniversityDaytona BeachUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Erik Seedhouse
    • 1
  1. 1.MiltonCanada

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