Encyclopedia of Computer Graphics and Games

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Key Early Verticals, Challenges and Limitations in Implementation of Augmented Reality

  • Adnan MahmoodEmail author
  • Bernard Butler
  • Hushairi Zen
  • Brendan Jennings
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08234-9_273-1



Augmented reality (AR) augments real world with virtualized contents (i.e., objects and/or supporting information) which appears to coexist in the same space as the real world (Palmarini et al. 2018). Its predecessor, i.e., virtual reality (VR), on the contrary, generates a completely artificial environment of the reality.

Key Early Verticals for Augmented Reality

Although the promising notions of AR and VR were coined several decades ago, the technologies enabling AR have just recently converged to a critical point enabling people to enjoy its experiences and to fully reap its benefits (Yuan 2017). AR is believed to be one of the key technology enablers for Industry 4.0 and is anticipated to disruptively change our world in many aspects. This section briefly depicts the key early verticals of AR in numerous industrial sectors, i.e., manufacturing, healthcare, logistics, design and architecture, military, and data...

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This publication has received support from the Science Foundation Ireland’s CONNECT programme, and is co-funded under European Regional Development Fund’s Grant Number 13/RC/2077.

The corresponding author would also like to acknowledge the generous support of the Ministry of Higher Education, Government of Malaysia for supporting part of the said research work through its Malaysian International Scholarship Grant, KPT. 600-4/1/12 JLID 2(8).


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adnan Mahmood
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Bernard Butler
    • 1
  • Hushairi Zen
    • 2
  • Brendan Jennings
    • 1
  1. 1.Emerging Networks Laboratory, Telecommunications Software & Systems GroupWaterford Institute of TechnologyWaterfordIreland
  2. 2.Communications Research Group, Faculty of EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia SarawakSarawakMalaysia