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Interaction of Light with Solids

  • Karl W. Böer
  • Udo W. PohlEmail author
Living reference work entry

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Abstract

The interaction of light with solids is described by Maxwell’s equations, which treat the solid as a continuum and lead to its optical parameters as a function of the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation: the complex dielectric constant. The dielectric constant describes the ability of a solid to screen an electric field – with electronic and ionic contributions – and is one of the most important material parameters. This function is closely related to the index of refraction and the optical absorption (or extinction) coefficient. All these parameters are derived from measured quantities: the transmitted and reflected light as a function of wavelength, impinging angle, and polarization.

A periodic modulation of the dielectric constant along a spatial direction leads to a photonic bandgap for the propagation of specific modes along this direction, analogous to the electronic bandgap for electrons traveling in the periodic crystal potential. A complete bandgap for propagation along any direction can be created for three-dimensional periodicity; defects given by deviations from periodicity lead to localized states in such photonic crystals, similar to effects in the electronic counterpart, allowing for, e.g., waveguiding or suppresion of spontaneous emission.

At high field amplitudes, nonlinear optical effects occur due to the nonparabolicity of the lattice potential. These effects can be described by a field-dependent dielectric function. The resulting nonharmonic oscillations permit mixing of different signals with corresponding change in frequency and amplitude.

Keywords

Absorption Dielectric constant Dielectric function Dielectric screening Electro-optical effects Ellipsometry Fresnel coefficient Fresnel equations Index of refraction Metamaterial Microcavity Nonlinear optical effects Optical constants Optical defect Photonic bandgap structures Photonic crystals Reflectance Reflection TE mode TM mode Transmittance Transmission Upconversion 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NaplesUSA
  2. 2.Institut für Festkörperphysik, EW5-1Technische Universität BerlinBerlinGermany

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