High-Resolution Inelastic X-Ray Scattering I: Context, Spectrometers, Samples, and Superconductors

  • Alfred Q. R. BaronEmail author
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This paper reviews nonresonant, meV-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS), as applied to the measurement of atomic dynamics of crystalline materials. It, in conjunction with a companion paper on scattering theory and calculations (Part II, also in this handbook), is designed to be an introductory, though in-depth, look at the field for those who may be interested in performing IXS experiments, or in understanding the operation of IXS spectrometers, or those desiring a practical introduction to harmonic phonons in crystals at finite momentum transfers. The treatment of most topics begins from ground level, with an emphasis on practical issues, as they have occurred to the author in two decades introducing meV-resolved IXS in Japan, including designing and building two IXS beamlines, spectrometers, and associated instrumentation, performing experiments, and helping and teaching other scientists. After a short introduction to the broader field of IXS, this paper, Part I, discusses the relative merits of IXS as compared to other methods of investigating atomic dynamics, especially inelastic neutron scattering (INS). A very brief overview of spectrometer operation and the types of spectra observed is also given. The paper then focuses on the main issues relevant for spectrometer design, including an introduction to relevant formulas from dynamical diffraction and an in-depth discussion of the how various design issues have been addressed in the different types of operating spectrometers, including spectrometers using spherically figured analyzers and the relatively new “post-sample collimation” (PSC) systems. Finally, there is a discussion of the types of experiments that have been carried out mentioning of the many of crystalline the samples that have been investigated and detailed discussion of measurements of superconductors and magnetoelastic coupling in iron-pnictide materials.



Charge density wave


Diamond anvil cell


Damped harmonic oscillator


High-resolution monochromator


Interatomic force constant matrix


Inelastic neutron scattering


Inelastic ultraviolet spectroscopy


Inelastic x-ray scattering (in the present paper: specifically meV-resolved nonresonant investigations)


Nuclear inelastic scattering (also, sometimes, NRVS, or, occasionally, NRIXS, is used instead)


Nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering (generally with resolution on the 0.01–0.1 eV scale for electronic interactions)


Nuclear resonant scattering


Nuclear resonant vibration spectroscopy (NIS is used in the present paper)


Post sample collimation


Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering


Spherical analyzer


Soft (x-ray) inelastic x-ray scattering


Thermal diffuse scattering


X-ray absorption fine structure


X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy



I am grateful to several scientists who kindly read and offered comments on preliminary versions of this paper including Sunil Sinha, Rolf Heid, Aleksandr Chumakov, Hiroshi Fukui, Kazuyoshi Yamada, and Yuri Shvyd’ko. I thank the scientists who kindly shared some of the details of the beamlines with me, including Ahmet Alatas, Ayman Said, Alexey Bosak, Claudio Masciovecchio, and Yong Cai. I also thank people for their useful relevant comments including F. Weber and M. Sutton. The paper is based on work carried out at SPring-8. I would like to express my deep appreciation to the many people in all parts of SPring-8 that I have had the pleasure of working with over the last two decades, as well as collaborators outside SPring-8. This work is based on experience gained during many proposals including 2001B 0203 0481 0482 0508 0575 3607, 2002A 0182 0279 0280 0520 0537 0559 0560 0561 0562 0627, 2002B 0151 0178 0179 0180 0243 0248 0249 0287 0382 0383 0529 0539 0565 0593 0594 0632 0668 0709, 2003A 0022 0081 0153 0175 0235 0284 0357 0555 0637 0638 0683 0716, 2003B 0019 0132 0206 0248 0359 0397 0574 0693 0743 0744 0745 0755 0766, 2004A 0322 0439 0510 0519 0577 0582 0590 0634, 2004B 0003 0070 0204 0343 0491 0597 0632 0635 0722 0730 0736 0752, 2005A 0039 0061 0146 0147 0148 0157 0330 0369 0428 0475 0567 0596 0616 0712 0751, 2005B 0082 0093 0124 0253 0266 0295 0346 0441 0443 0484 0603 0623 0650 0731 0736, 2006A 1023 1039 1057 1081 1181 1226 1242 1272 1273 1291 1345 1376 1379 1417 1430 1453 1467 1502, 2006B 1053 1082 1089 1146 1186 1204 1235 1259 1299 1311 1337 1352 1356 1405 1417, 2007A 1109 1118 1125 1125 1222 1234 1279 1281 1301 1374 1436 1441 1473 1505 1507 1523 1539 1561 1612 1647 1671, 2007B 1053 1062 1099 1114 1118 1197 1198 1215 1322 1328 1336 1343 1375 1444 1538 1614 1640 1662, 2008A 1058 1064 1125 1140 1204 1205 1394 1456 1491 1522 1568 1582 1584 1587 1588 1626, 2008B 1381 1403 1473 1178 1108 1326 1584 1240 1144 1169 1491 1634, 2009A 1054 1093 1146 1189 1203 1224 1274 1290 1299 1358 1379 1436 1451 1492 1506 1548, 2009B 1074 1114 1126 1150 1165 1286 1323 1423 1439 1548 1555 1584 1609 1619, 2010B 1108 1112 1177 1185 1206 1353 1354 1392 1410 1453 1497 15271538 1575 1579 1593, 2011A 1051 1075 1104 1117 1136 1154 1180 1256 1271 1300 1304 1366 1373 1452 1502, 2011B 1122 1213 1215 1314 1332 1336 1353 1388 1406 1408 1423 1425 1536 1590, 2012A 1102 1115 1122 1156 1219 1237 1243 1250 1255 1354 1362 1390 1406 1417 1452 1506 1583, 2012B 1080 1125 1159 1196 1226 1236 1277 1283 1343 1356 1358 1364 1439 1577 1596 1658 , 2014A 1026 1059 1076 1086 1089 1100 1106 1122 1131 1154 1207 1231 1235 1236 1240 1346 1368 1378 1385 1434 1678 1687 1884 2014B 1052 1066 1068 1130 1143 1159 1182 1222 1269 1271 1290 1365 1381 1465 1381 1465 1536 1545 1739 1760 1761 1175 1192.

Supplementary material

Movie 1

Movie of a longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode in MgB2near to Γ. The view is looking down the c-axis, small gray spheres are B atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, while yellow spheres are represent Mg atoms (MP4 62 kb)

Movie 2

Movie of a transverse acoustic (TA) mode in MgB2near to Γ (see notes on Movie 1). Note the motion is transverse to the direction of correlation (MP4 62 kb)

Movie 3

Movie of a longitudinal optic (LO) mode in MgB2near to Γ (see notes on Movie 1). Note the out-of-phase (antiphase) motion of the atoms (MP4 51 kb)

Movie 4

Movie of a transverse optic (TO) mode in MgB2near to Γ (see notes on Movie 1). Note the out-of-phase (antiphase) motion of the atoms (MP4 65 kb)

Movie 5

Movie of the (low energy) LA mode near to Γ in CaAlSi. The view is perpendicular to the c-axis, with the plane of Ca atoms (white) alternating with the Al-Si planes (blue and red, respectively). Note all motions are in phase (MP4 43 kb)

Movie 6

Movie of the (high energy) LO mode near to Γ in CaAlSi. Same view and colors as for Movie 5. Note the antiphase motion of the adjacent Al and Si. (MP4 37 kb)

Movie 7

Movie of the low-energy mode near to zone boundary (0 0 0.5) in CaAlSi, which, by following the dispersion from Γ, is the acoustic mode. Same view and colors as for Movie 5. Note the antiphase motion of the adjacent Al and Si (MP4 31 kb)

Movie 8

Movie of the high-energy mode near to zone boundary (0 0 0.5) in CaAlSi, which, by following the dispersion from Γ, is the optic mode. Same view and colors as for Movie 5. Note the inphase motion of the adjacent Al and Si (MP4 26 kb)

Movie 9

Movie of the low-energy mode near to the anti-crossing at (0 0 0.21) in CaAlSi, which, by following the dispersion from Γ, is the acoustic mode. Same view and colors as for Movie 5. Note the polarization mixing (MP4 31 kb)

Movie 10

Movie of the high-energy mode near to the anti-crossing at (0 0 0.21) in CaAlSi, which, by following the dispersion from Γ, is the optic mode. Same view and colors as for Movie 5. Note the polarization mixing (MP4 35 kb)

Movie 11

Movie of a Fe-As optical mode in PrFeAsO. The lack of reflection symmetry about the Fe plane leads to elliptical atomic motions (MP4 20 kb)

Movie 12

Movie of one of the bond-stretching modes in YBa2Cu3O7near to Γ. Cu atoms are red, O white, Y yellow, Ba blue. The c-axis is vertical (MP4 48 kb)

Movie 13

Movie of one of the buckling modes in YBa2Cu3O7near to Γ. (See notes on Movie 12) (MP4 23 kb)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Materials Dynamics LaboratoryRIKEN SPring-8 Center, RIKENSayoJapan

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