Skip to main content

Effects of Polysaccharide-Based Formulations on Human Skin

Abstract

The polysaccharides, mainly from natural sources, have been widely used in cosmetic area due to their multifunctional properties, playing a large role in the research and development of cosmetics products.

The knowledge of the skin biology allows the identification of which active ingredients are important for the maintenance of its integrality and barrier function, essential to skin health.

So due to the polysaccharides’ protective effects on the skin, the development of cosmetic formulations with these ingredients like hyaluronic acid, algae, and others obtained by biotechnology process could improve the efficacy of the formulations, maintaining the skin in good conditions. In addition, some polysaccharides can also improve formulation stability and sensorial properties.

The data from clinical studies showed that the polysaccharide-based formulations promoted the transepidermal water loss reduction, protecting the skin barrier function. This way, they are interesting active ingredients to develop effective cosmetic formulations for skin protection and maintenance of its structure integrality.

Keywords

  • Polysaccharides
  • Cosmetic formulations
  • Clinical efficacy
  • Skin hydration
  • Skin protection
  • Rheology
  • Biophysical techniques

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

References

  • Amann M, Dressnandt G (1993) Solving problems with cyclodextrins in cosmetics. Cosmet Toilet 108(11):90–95

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Abbruzzese L, Rizzo L, Fanelli G, Tedeschi A, Scatena A, Goretti C, Macchiarini S, Piaggesi A (2009) Effectiveness and safety of a novel gel dressing in the management of neuropathic leg ulcers in diabetic patients: a prospective double-blind randomized trial. Int J Lower Extremity Wounds 8(3):134–140

    Google Scholar 

  • Ammala A (2013) Biodegradable polymers as encapsulation materials for cosmetics and personal care markets. Int J Cosmet Sci 35:113–124. doi:10.1111/ics.12017

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bae JT, Sim GS, Lee DH, Lee BC, Pyo HB, Choe TB, Yun JW (2005) Production of exopolysaccharide from mycelial culture of Grifola frondosa and its inhibitory effect on matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in UV-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts. FEMS Microbiol Lett 251(2):347–354

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Band PA, Brode GL, Goddard ED, Barone AG, Leshchiner E, Harris WC, Pavlichko JR, Partain EM, Leung PS (1991) Interpolymer complexes between hyaluronan and cationic cellulose polymers. In: Gebelein CG, Cheng TC, Yang VC (eds) Cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications of polymers. Plenum Press, New York, pp 129–135

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Basavaraj KH, Johnsy G, Navya MA, Rashmi R, Siddaramaiah H (2010) Biopolymers as transdermal drug delivery systems in dermatology therapy. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 27:155–185

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Baschong W, Monglat S, Ochs D (2009) Glucan compositions

    Google Scholar 

  • Baumann L (2007) Skin aging and its treatment. J Pathol 211:241–251

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Beitner H (2003) Randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind study on the clinical efficacy of a cream containing 5% < -lipoic acid related to photoageing of facial skin. Br J Dermatol Oxford 149(4):841–849

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • BeMiller JN (1992) Carbohydrates. In: Kroschwitz JI, Howe-Grant M (eds) Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology, vol 4, 4th edn. Wiley, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Bravo L (1998) Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutr Rev 56:317–333

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Brigand G (1993) Scleroglucan. In: Whistler RL, BeMiller JN (eds) Industrial gums, polysaccharides and their derivatives. Academic, San Diego, pp 461–474

    Google Scholar 

  • Brode GL, Goddard ED, Harris WC, Salensky GA (1991) Cationic polysaccharides for cosmetics and therapeutics. In: Gebelein CG, Cheng TC, Yang VC (eds) Cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications of polymers. Plenum Press, New York, pp 117–128

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brown MB, Jones SA (2005) Hyaluronic acid: a unique topical vehicle for the localized delivery of drugs to the skin. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 19:308–318

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Buraczewska I, Brostrom UB, Lodén M (2007) Artificial reduction in transepidermal water loss improves skin function. Br J Dermatol 157(1):82–86

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Camargo Junior FB, Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PMBG (2011) Skin moisturizing effects of panthenol-based formulations. J Cosmet Sci 62:361–369

    Google Scholar 

  • Camargo Junior FB, Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PMBG (2012) Immediate and long-term effects of polysaccharides-based formulations on human skin. Braz J Pharm Sci São Paulo 48(3):547–555

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Camargo FB, Melo MO, Maia Campos PMBG (2014) Stability and efficacy of cosmetic formulations containing Myrtus communis extract. Submitted for publication

    Google Scholar 

  • Cattaneo MV (2005) Topical delivery systems based on polysaccharide microspheres. In: Rosen MR (ed) Delivery system handbook for personal care and cosmetic products. William Andrew, Norwich, pp 273–282

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chang MJ, Huang HC, Chang HC, Chang TM (2008) Cosmetic formulations containing Lithospermum erythrorhizon root extract show moisturizing effects on human skin. Arch Dermatol Res 300:317–323

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cheng Y, Dong YY, Dong MX et al (2007) Moisturizing and antisebum effect of cosmetic application on facial skin. J Cosmet Dermatol 6:172–177

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chudzikowski RJ (1971) Guar gum and its applications. J Soc Cosmet Chem 22:43–60

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Citernesi U, Sciacchitano M (1995) Cyclodextrins in functional dermocosmetics. Cosmet Toilet 110:53–58, 60–61

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Clark M (1993) Rheological additives. In: Laba D (ed) Rheological properties of cosmetics and toiletries. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 61–85

    Google Scholar 

  • Coviello T et al (2007) Polysaccharide hydrogels for modified release formulations. J Control Release 119:5–24

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cunha PLR da, Paula RCM de, Feitosa JPA (2009) Polissacarídeos da biodiversidade brasileira: uma oportunidade de transformar conhecimento em valor econômico. Quím Nova São Paulo 32(3):649–660

    Google Scholar 

  • Dal’Belo SE, Gaspar LR, Maia Campos PMBG (2006) Moisturizing effect of cosmetic formulations containing Aloe vera extract in different concentrations assessed by skin bioengineering techniques. Skin Res Technol 12:241–246

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Deters AM, Schröder KR, Hensel A (2005) Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis L.) polysaccharides exert stimulating effects on cell proliferation via enhanced growth factor receptors, energy production, and collagen synthesis of human keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and skin equivalents. J Cell Physiol 202:717–722. doi:10.1002/jcp.20161

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Djabourov M (1991) Gelation. A review. Polym Int 25:135–143

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dobrev HP (2000) Use of Cutometer to assess epidermal hydration. Skin Res Technol 6:239–244

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Draget KI, Skjak-Braek G, Smidsrod O (1997) Alginate based new materials. Int J Biol Macromol 21:47–55

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Du B, Bian Z, Xu B (2014) Skin health promotion effects of natural beta-glucan derived from cereals and microorganisms: a review. Phytother Res 28:159–166

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Enjelke M, Jensen JM, Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage S, Proksch E (1997) Effects of xerosis and ageing on epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Br J Dermatol 137:219–225

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Feddersen RL, Thorp SN (1993) Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. In: Whistler RL, BeMiller JN (eds) Industrial gums polysaccharides and their derivatives, 3rd edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 537–578

    Google Scholar 

  • Gacesa P (1988) Alginates. Carbohydr Polym 8(3):161–182

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gianeti MD, Maia Campos PMBG (2014) Evaluation of age-related changes in human skin by image analysis techniques: an overview. Submitted for publication

    Google Scholar 

  • Gillon V, Perie G, Freis O, Pauly M, Pauly G (1999) New active ingredients with cutaneous tightening effect. In: Bond S, Caine M (eds) Cosmetics and toiletries manufacturing worldwide. Aston Publishing Group, Hemel Hempstead, pp 22–31

    Google Scholar 

  • Gommet M, Lethuaut I, Boury F (2010) New trends in encapsulation of liposoluble vitamins. J Control Release 146:276–290

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gonzalez S, Gilaberte-Calzada Y (2014) In vivo reflectance-mode confocal microscopy in clinical dermatology and cosmetology. Int J Cosmet Sci 30:1–17

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gruber JV (1999) Polysaccharide-based polymers in cosmetics. In: Goddard ED, Gruber JV (eds) Principles of polymer science and technology in cosmetics and personal care. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 339–403

    Google Scholar 

  • Guillot JP, Giauffret JY, Martini MC, Gonnet JF, Soule G (1982) Safety evaluation of gums and thickeners used in cosmetic formulations. Int J Cosmet Sci 4:53–66

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • He W, Guo X, Xiao L, Feng M (2009) Study on the mechanisms of chitosan and its derivatives used as transdermal penetration enhancers. Int J Pharm 382(1–2):234–43

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Huang HC, Chang TM (2008) Ceramide 1 and ceramide 3 act synergistically on skin hydration and the transepidermal water loss of sodium lauryl sulfate-irritated skin. Int J Dermatol 47:812–819

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Humbert P, Viennet C, Legagneux K, Grandmottet F, Robin S, Muret P (2012a) In the shadow of the wrinkle: experimental models. J Cosmet Dermatol 11:79–83

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Humbert P, Viennet C, Legagneux K, Grandmottet F, Robin S, Oddos T, Muret P (2012b) In the shadow of the wrinkle: theories. J Cosmet Dermatol 11:72–78

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Idson B (1988) Polymers in skin care. Cosmet Toilet 103:65

    Google Scholar 

  • Julia MR, Munoz I, Ayats A, Cot M (1996) Sorption-desorption behavior of anionic surfactant on wool fibres treated with biopolymer. Agro Food Ind Hi-Tech 3:13–16

    Google Scholar 

  • Kanlayavattanakul M, Rodchuea C, Lourith N (2012) Moisturizing effect of alcohol-based hand rub containing okra polysaccharide. Int J Cosmet Sci 34:280–283

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kim E, Nam GW, Kim S, Lee H, Moon S, Chang I (2007) Influence of polyol and oil concentration in cosmetic products on skin moisturization and skin surface roughness. Skin Res Technol 13:417–424

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kim SK, Ravichandran YD, Khan SB, Kim YT (2008) Prospective of the cosmeceuticals derived from marine organisms. Biotechnol Bioproc Eng 13(5):511–523

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kobayashi D, Kusama M, Onda M, Nakahata N (2011) The effect of pantothenic acid deficiency on keratinocyte proliferation and the synthesis of keratinocyte growth factor and collagen in fibroblasts. J Pharm Sci 115:230–234

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kogan G, Soltés L, Stern R, Gemeiner P (2007) Hyaluronic acid: a natural biopolymer with a broad range of biomedical and industrial applications. Biotechnol Lett 29:17–25

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kong M, Park HJ (2011) Stability investigation of hyaluronic acid based nanoemulsion and its potential as transdermal carrier. Carbohydr Polym 83:1303–1310

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kuncheva M et al (2007) Emulsifying power of mannan and glucomannan produced by yeasts. Int J Cosmet Sci 29:377–384

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Laba D (1993) Rheological properties of cosmetics and toiletries. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee BC, Bae JT, Pyo HB, Choe TB, Kim SW, Hwang HJ, Yun JW (2003) Biological activities of the polysaccharides produced from submerged culture of the edible basidiomycete Grifola frondosa. Enzyme Microb Technol 32(5):574–581

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Leonardi GR (2004) Cosmetologia Aplicada, 1st edn. Medfarma, Sao Paulo, pp 92–93

    Google Scholar 

  • Lochead RY (1988) The history of polymers in hair care. Cosmet Toilet 103:39–40

    Google Scholar 

  • Lochead RY (1998) The history of polymers in hair care. Cosmet Toilet 103:23–61

    Google Scholar 

  • Maia Campos PMBG, Gonçalves GMS, Gaspar LR (2008) In vitro antioxidant activity and in vivo efficacy of topical formulations containing vitamin C and its derivatives studied by non-invasive methods. Skin Res Technol 14:376–380

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Maia Campos PMBG, Gianeti MD, Camargo FB Jr, Gaspar LR (2012) Application of tetra-isopalmitoyl ascorbic acid in cosmetic formulations: stability studies and in vivo efficacy. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 82(3):580–586

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Maia Campos PMBG, Mercurio DG, Matioli FP, Delsin SD, Camargo Junior FB (2013) Stability and clinical efficacy of a cosmetic formulation containing Blue-Green Alga. In: 22nd IFSCC conference, vol 22, Rio de Janeiro, pp 408–410

    Google Scholar 

  • Maier H, Anderson M, Karl C, Magnuson K, Whistler RL (1993) Guar, locust bean, tara and fenugreek gums. In: Whistler RL, BeMiller IN (eds) Industrial gums polysaccharides and their derivatives, 3rd edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 181–226

    Google Scholar 

  • Majewicz TG, Podlas TJ (1993) Cellulose ethers. In: Kroschwitz JI, Howe-Grant M (eds) Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology, vol 5, 4th edn. Wiley, New York, pp 545–548

    Google Scholar 

  • Matsuda H, Arima H (1999) Cyclodextrins in transdermal and rectal delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 36:81–99

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Meer W (1980) Chapter 10, Gum karaya. In: Davidson RL (ed) Handbook of water-soluble gums and resins. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 1–14

    Google Scholar 

  • Moon HJ, Lee SR, Shim SN et al (2008) Fucoidan inhibits UVB-induced MMP-1 expression in human skin fibroblasts. Biol Pharm Bull 31(2):284–289

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Motwani M, Zatz JL (1997) Applications of cyclodextrins in skin products. Cosmet Toilet 112:39–42, 44–47

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nishinari K, Takahashi R (2003) Interaction in polysaccharide solutions and gels. Curr Opin Coll Interf Sci 8:396–400

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Onishi H, Nagai T, Machida Y (1997) Applications of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives to drug carriers for microparticulated or conjugated drug delivery systems. In: Goosen MFA (ed) Applications of chitin and chitosan. Technomic, Lancaster, pp 205–231

    Google Scholar 

  • Onsoyen E, Dybdahl MK (1991) The application and benefits of chitosan in cosmetics. Cosmet Toilet Manuf World 32:34–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Oresajo C, Stephens T, Hino PD et al (2008) Protective effects of a topical antioxidant mixture containing vitamin C, ferulic acid, and phloretin against ultraviolet-induced photodamage in human skin. J Cosmet Dermatol 7:290–297

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Paul F, Morin A, Monsan P (1986) Microbial polysaccharides with actual potential industrial applications. Biotechnol Adv 4(2):245–259

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pavicic T, Gauglitz GG, Lersch P et al (2011) Efficacy of cream-based novel formulations of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weight in anti-wrinkle treatment. J Drugs Dermatol 10:990–1000

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pavlichko JP (1990) Polymer interactions to enhance the function of hyaluronic acid. Drug Cosmet Ind 147:21–24

    Google Scholar 

  • Pawar KR, Babu RJ (2010) Polymeric and lipid-based materials for topical nanoparticle delivery systems. Crit Rev Ther Drug Carr Syst 27:419–459

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pillai R, Redmond M, Röding J (2005) Anti-wrinkle therapy: significant new findings in the non-invasive cosmetic treatment of skin wrinkles with beta-glucan. Int J Cosmet Sci 27:292

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Prajapati VD, Maheriya PM, Jani GK, Solanki HK (2014) Carrageenan: a natural seaweed polysaccharide and its applications. Carbohydr Polym 105:97–112

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Price RD, Berry MG, Navsaria HA (2007) Hyaluronic acid: the scientific and clinical evidence. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 60:1110–1119

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Renaud M, Belgacem MN, Rinaudo M (2005) Rheological behaviour of polysaccharide aqueous solutions. Polymer 46:12348–12358

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Robbins CR (1994) Chemical and physical behavior of human hair, 3rd edn. Springer, New York, pp 204–207

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Romberger ML (1998) Cyclodextrins: altered states. Soap Perf Cosmet 44–46

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosemberg E, Ron EZ (1997) Bioemulsans: microbial polymeric emulsifiers. Curr Opin Biotechnol 8:313–316

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sarpotdar PP (1993) Iontophoresis. In: Zatz JL (ed) Skin permeation fundamentals and application. Allured, Carol Stream, pp 239–250

    Google Scholar 

  • Sayre RM, Kollias N, Ley RD, Baqer AH (1994) Changing the risk spectrum of injury and the performance of sunscreen products throughout the day. Photodermotol Photoimmunol Photomed 10(4):148–153

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Scalia S, Villani S, Scatturin A, Vandelli MA, Forni F (1998) Complexation of the sunscreen agent, butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane, with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. Int J Pharm 175:205–213

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Seaman JK (1980) Chapter 6, Guar gum. In: Davison RL (ed) Handbook of water-soluble gums and resins. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 1–19

    Google Scholar 

  • Song KW, Kim YS, Chang GS (2006) Rheology of concentrated xanthan gum solutions: steady shear flow behavior. Fibers Polym 7:129–13

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stauffer KR (1993) Chapter 11, Gum tragacanth. In: Davidson RL (ed) Handbook of water-soluble gums and resins. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 1–31

    Google Scholar 

  • Stelzer GI, Klug ED (1980) Chapter 4, Carboxymethylcellulose. In: Davidson RL (ed) Handbook of water-soluble gums and resins. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 1–28

    Google Scholar 

  • Szejtli J (1984) Industrial applications of cyclodextrins. In: Atwood JL, Davies JE, MacNicol DD (eds) Inclusion compounds, vol 3, Physical properties and applications. Academic, London, pp 331–390

    Google Scholar 

  • Taramici N (2011) Cyclodextrins in the cosmetic field. In: Bilensoy E (ed) Cyclodextrins in pharmaceutics, cosmetics and biomedicine. Current and future industrial applications. Wiley, Hoboken, pp 131–144

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Teh BM, Shen Y, Friedland PL, Atlas MD, Marano RJ (2012) A review on the use of hyaluronic acid in tympanic membrane wound healing. Expert Opin Biol Ther 12:23–36

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Unholzer A, Korting HC (2002) High-frequency ultrasound in the evaluation of pharmacological effects on the skin. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol 15:71–84

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Verbeken D, Dierckx S, Dewettinck K (2003) Exudate gums: occurrence, production, and applications. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 63(1):10–21

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Vianna Filho RP (2009) Aplicação de Polissacarideos em Emulsão Cosmeticas: Analises Reologicas. 123 f. (MsC) – Bioquemistry. Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba

    Google Scholar 

  • Watcher R, Hofmann M, Panzer C, Stenberg E (1997) Hydagen CMF: multifunctional agents of biomarine origin. Cosmet Toilet Manuf World 11:35–40

    Google Scholar 

  • Whistler RL (1993) Exudate gums. In: Whistler RL, BeMiller JN (eds) Industrial gums polysaccharides and their derivatives, 3rd edn. Academic, San Diego, pp 309–339

    Google Scholar 

  • Wijesekara I, Pangestuti R, Kim S (2011) Biological activities and potential health benefits of sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae. Carbohydr Polym 84(1):14–21

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wissing SA, Muller RH (2003) The influence of solid lipid nanoparticles on skin hydration and viscoelasticity – in vivo study. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 56:67–72

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yaar M, Eller MS, Gilchrest BA (2002) Fifty years skin aging. J Invest Dermatol 7(1):51–58

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yalpani M (1988) Properties: pectins. In: Yalpani M (ed) Polysaccharides synthesis, modifications and structure/property relations. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 110

    Google Scholar 

  • Zulli F, Suter F, Biltz H, Nissen HP (1998) Improving skin function with CM-glucan, a biological response modifier from yeast. Int J Cosmet Sci 2:76–86

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves Maia Campos , Maisa Oliveira de Melo or Flavio Bueno de Camargo Junior .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this entry

Cite this entry

Maia Campos, P.M.B.G., de Melo, M.O., de Camargo Junior, F.B. (2014). Effects of Polysaccharide-Based Formulations on Human Skin. In: Ramawat, K., Mérillon, JM. (eds) Polysaccharides. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-03751-6_64-1

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-03751-6_64-1

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-03751-6

  • eBook Packages: Springer Reference Chemistry & Mat. ScienceReference Module Physical and Materials Science