Advertisement

PecticPolysaccharides and Their Functional Properties

  • Beda M. Yapo
  • Dago Gnakri
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Since their first discovery in 1790–1825, pectins are still fascinating plant and food scientists who continue to carry out numerous structural as well as functional studies on them. This great interest of scientists for pectins is accounted for by their large spectrum of (bio)functionalities, starting from their natural location in plant cell walls as bioactive components for cell growth, defense, and protection via diverse manufactured food and nonfood products as techno-functional (gelling, emulsifying, film-forming, etc.) agents to terminate in human welfare as health-benefit (prebiotic, anticomplementary, antioxidant, anticancer, etc.) agents. The extraordinary functional versatility of pectins is thought to be intimately related to fine structure. Unfortunately, structurally, pectins are extremely diversified that establishment of structure-function relationship appeared so far a difficult task to go through. On the other hand, the extended structural variability of pectins presages for the finding of new functions hitherto unknown. Nevertheless, for some structurally well-known pectic cobiopolymers such as homogalacturonan, solid evidence for structure-related functions, especially gelling properties, has been provided, including new insights very recently.

After a brief introduction on the “pectin structural repertoire,” the main sources of industrial pectins will be exposed, followed by a succinct structural description of the different pectic block cobiopolymers, commonly referred to as “pectic polysaccharides.” Finally, some remarkable structure-related functions, namely, gelling, emulsifying/emulsion-stabilizing, and antitumor properties of pectins will be revisited in the light of the latest work.

Keywords

Pectins Sources Production Structures Properties 

References

  1. Akhtar M, Dickinson E, Mazoyer J, Langendorff V (2002) Emulsion stabilizing properties of depolymerized pectin. Food Hydrocoll 16:249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albersheim P, Darvill AG, O’Neill MA, Schols HA, Voragen AGJ (1996) An hypothesis: the same six polysaccharides are components of the primary cell walls of all higher plants. In: Visser J, Voragen AGJ (eds) Pectins and pectinases. Progress in biotechnology. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp 47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alonso-Mougan M, Meijide F, Jover A, Rodríguez-Núñez E, Vázquez-Tato J (2002) Rheological behaviour of an amide pectin. J Food Eng 55:123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagherian H, Ashtiani FZ, Fouladitajar A, Mohtashamy M (2011) Comparisons between conventional, microwave- and ultrasound-assisted methods for extraction of pectin from grapefruit. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 50:1237–1243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baississe S, Ghannem H, Fahloul D, Lekbir A (2010) Comparison of structure and emulsifying activity of pectin extracted from apple pomace and apricot pulp. World J Dairy Food Sci 5:79–84Google Scholar
  6. Caffall KH, Mohnen D (2009) The structure, function, and biosynthesis of plant cell wall pectic polysaccharides. Carbohydr Res 344:1879–1900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Coenen GJ, Bakx EJ, Verhoef RP, Schols HA, Voragen AGJ (2007) Identification of the connecting linkage between homo- or xylogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan type I. Carbohydr Polym 70:224–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dea ICM, Madden JK (1986) Acetylated pectic polysaccharides of sugar beet. Food Hydrocoll 1:71–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dickinson E (2009) Hydrocolloids as emulsifiers and emulsion stabilizers. Food Hydrocoll 23:1473–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eliaz I (2002) The potential role of modified citrus pectin in the prevention of cancer metastasis. Clin Pract Altern Med 2:177–179Google Scholar
  11. Espitia PJP, Du WX, Avena-Bustillos RJ, Soares NFF, McHugh TH (2014) Edible films from pectin: physical-mechanical and antimicrobial properties-a review. Food Hydrocoll 35:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fishman ML, Cooke PH (2009) The structure of high-methoxyl sugar acid gels of citrus pectin as determined by AFM. Carbohydr Res 344:1792–1797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fishman ML, Chau HK, Coffin DR, Hotchkiss JAT (2003) A comparison of lime and orange pectin which were rapidly extracted from albedo. In: Voragen AGJ, Schols H, Visser R (eds) Advances in pectin and pectinase research. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 107–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fraeye I, Duvetter T, Doungla E, Loey AV, Hendrickx M (2010) Fine-tuning the properties of pectin-calcium gels by control of pectin fine structure, gel composition and environmental conditions. Trends Food Sci Technol 21:219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Funami T, Nakauma M, Ishihara S, Tanaka R, Inoue T, Phillips GO (2011) Structural modifications of sugar beet pectin and the relationship of structure to functionality. Food Hydrocoll 25:221–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Glinsky VV, Raz A (2009) Modified citrus pectin anti-metastatic properties: one bullet, multiple targets. Carbohydr Res 344:1788–1791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Golovchenko VV, Ovodova RG, Shashkov AS, Ovodov YS (2002) Structural studies of the pectic polysaccharide from duckweed Lemna minor L. Phytochemistry 60:89–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grant GT, Morris ER, Rees DA, Smith PJC, Thom D (1973) Biological interactions between polysaccharides and divalent cations: the egg–box model. FEBS Lett 32:195–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gullón B, Gómez B, Martínez-Sabajanes M, Yáñez R, Parajó JC, Alonso JL (2013) Pectic oligosaccharides: manufacture and functional properties. Trends Food Sci Technol 30:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gunning AP, Bongaerts RJM, Morris VJ (2009) Recognition of galactan components of pectin by galectin-3. FASEB J 23:415–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Herbstreith F (2014a) Confectionery gum and jelly products. http://www.herbstreith-fox.de/fileadmin/tmpl/pdf/broschueren/Suesswaren_e_13.pdf. Accessed 14 Jan 2014
  22. Herbstreith F (2014b) Jams, jellies and marmalades. http://www.herbstreith-fox.de/fileadmin/tmpl/pdf/broschueren/Konfituere_englisch.pdf. Accessed 14 Jan 2014
  23. Jackson CL, Dreaden TM, Theobald LK, Tran NM, Beal TL, Eid M et al (2007) Pectin induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells: correlation of apoptotic function with pectin structure. Glycobiology 17:805–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kirby AR, MacDougall AJ, Morris VJ (2008) Atomic force microscopy of tomato and sugar beet pectin molecules. Carbohydr Polym 71:640–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kohn R, Luknar O (1977) Intermolecular calcium-ion binding on polyuronates-Polygalacturonate and polyguluronate. Collect Czechoslovak Chem Commun 42:731–744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Maran JP, Sivakumar V, Thirugnanasambandham K, Sridhar R (2013) Optimization of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from orange peel. Carbohydr Polym 97:703–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. May CD (1990) Industrial pectins: sources, production and applications. Carbohydr Polym 12:79–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Morris VJ, Gromer A, Kirby AR, Bongaerts RJM, Gunning AP (2011) Using AFM and force spectroscopy to determine pectin structure and (bio)functionality. Food Hydrocoll 25:230–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nakauma M, Funami T, Noda S, Ishihara S, Al-Assaf S, Nishinari K et al (2008) Comparison of sugar beet pectin, soybean soluble polysaccharide, and gum arabic as emulsifiers. 1. Effect of concentration, pH and salts on the emulsifying properties. Food Hydrocoll 22:1254–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nangia-Makker P, Hogan V, Honjo Y, Baccarini S, Tait L, Bresalier R et al (2002) Inhibition of human cancer cell growth and metastasis in nude mice by oral intake of modified citrus pectin. J Natl Cancer Inst 94:1854–1862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. O’Brien AB, Philp K, Morris ER (2009) Gelation of high-methoxy pectin by enzymic de-esterification in the presence of calcium ions: a preliminary evaluation. Carbohydr Res 344:1818–1823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. O’Neill MA, York WS (2003) The composition and structure of plant primary cell walls. In: Rose JKC (ed) The plant cell wall. Blackwell/CRC, Boca Raton, pp 1–54Google Scholar
  33. O’Neill MA, Ishii T, Albersheim P, Darvill AG (2004) Rhamnogalacturonan-II: structure and function of a borate cross-linked cell wall pectic polysaccharide. Annu Rev Plant Biol 55:109–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Oosterveld A, Beldman G, Searle-van Leeuwen MJF, Voragen AGJ (2000) Effect of enzymatic deacetylation on gelation of sugar beet pectin in the presence of calcium. Carbohydr Polym 43:249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ovodov YS (2009) Current views on pectin substances. Rus J Bioorg Chem 35:269–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ovodova RG, Popov SV, Bushneva OA, Golovchenko VV, Chizhov AO, Klinov DV et al (2006) Branching of the galacturonan backbone of comaruman, a pectin from the marsh cinquefoil Comarum palustre L. Biochemistry (Moscow) 71:538–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Platt D, Raz A (1992) Modulation of the lung colonization of B16-F1 melanoma cells by citrus pectin. J Natl Cancer Inst 84:438–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ridley BL, O’Neill MA, Mohnen D (2001) Pectins: structure, biosynthesis, and oligogalacturonide-related signaling. Phytochemistry 57:929–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Round AN, Rigby NM, MacDougall AJ, Morris VJ (2010) A new view of pectin structure revealed by acid hydrolysis and atomic force microscopy. Carbohydr Res 345:487–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Schieber A, Stintzing FC, Carle R (2001) By-products of plant food processing as a source of functional compounds – recent developments. Trends Food Sci Technol 12:401–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Schols HA, Voragen AGJ (1996) Complex pectins: structure elucidation using enzymes. In: Visser J, Voragen AGJ (eds) Pectins and pectinases. Progress in biotechnology. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, pp 3–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sila DN, Van Buggenhout S, Duvetter T, Fraeye I, De Roeck A, Van Loey A et al (2009) Pectins in processed fruits and vegetables: part II. Structure–function relationships. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 8:86–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Silva DC, Freitas ALP, Barros FCN, Lins KOAL, Alves APNN, Alencar NMN et al (2012) Polysaccharide isolated from Passiflora edulis: characterization and antitumor properties. Carbohydr Polym 87:139–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sørensen I, Pedersen HL, Willats WGT (2009) An array of possibilities for pectin. Carbohydr Res 344:1872–1878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sriamornsak P (2003) Chemistry of pectin and its pharmaceutical uses: a review. Silpak Univ Int J 3:206–228Google Scholar
  46. Srivastava P, Malviya R (2011) Sources of pectin, extraction and its applications in pharmaceutical industry – an overview. Indian J Nat Prod Res 2:10–18Google Scholar
  47. Taylor AJ (1982) Intramolecular distribution of carboxyl groups in low methoxyl pectins – a review. Carbohydr Polym 2:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Thakur BR, Singh RK, Handa AK (1997) Chemistry and uses of pectins – a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37:47–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vayssade M, Sengkhamparn N, Verhoef R, Delaigue C, Goundiam O, Vigneron P et al (2010) Antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions of okra pectin on B16F10 melanoma cells. Phytother Res 24:982–989Google Scholar
  50. Vincken JP, Schols HA, Oomen RJFJ, McCann MC, Ulvskov P, Voragen AGJ et al (2003) If homogalacturonan were a side chain of rhamnogalacturonan I. Implications for cell wall architecture. Plant Physiol 132:1781–1789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Voragen AGJ, Pilnik W, Thibault JF, Axelos MAV, Renard CMGC (1995) Pectins. In: Stephen AM (ed) Food polysaccharides and their applications. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 287–339Google Scholar
  52. Voragen AGJ, Coenen GJ, Verhoef RP, Schols HA (2009) Pectin, a versatile polysaccharide present in plant cell walls. Struct Chem 20:263–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wang S, Chen F, Wu J, Wang Z, Liao X, Hu X (2007) Optimization of pectin extraction assisted by microwave from apple pomace using response surface methodology. J Food Eng 78:693–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Willats WGT, Knox JP, Mikkelsen JD (2006) Pectin: new insights into an old polymer are starting to gel. Trends Food Sci Technol 17:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Williams PA, Sayers C, Viebke C, Senan C (2005) Elucidation of the emulsification properties of sugar beet pectin. J Agric Food Chem 53:3592–3597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yapo BM (2009) Pineapple and banana pectins comprise fewer homogalacturonan building blocks with a smaller degree of polymerization as compared with yellow passion fruit and lemon pectins: implication for gelling properties. Biomacromolecules 10(4):717–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yapo BM (2011a) Rhamnogalacturonan-I: a structurally puzzling and functionally versatile polysaccharide from plant cell walls and mucilages. Polym Rev 51(4):391–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Yapo BM (2011b) Pectic substances: from simple pectic polysaccharides to complex pectins – a new hypothetical model. Carbohydr Polym 86(2):373–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Yapo BM (2011c) Pectin rhamnogalacturonan-II: on the “small stem with four branches” in the primary cell walls of plants. Int J Carbohydr Chem 2011:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yapo BM, Koffi KL (2013a) Utilisation of model pectins reveals the effect of demethylated block size frequency on calcium gel formation. Carbohydr Polym 92(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yapo BM, Koffi KL (2013b) Extraction and characterization of gelling and emulsifying pectin fractions from cacao pod husk. J Food Nutr Res 1(4):46–51Google Scholar
  62. Yapo BM, Koffi KL (2014) Extraction and characterization of highly gelling low methoxy pectin from cashew apple pomace. Foods 3(1):1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yapo BM, Robert C, Etienne I, Wathelet B, Paquot M (2007a) Effect of extraction conditions on the yield, purity and surface properties of sugar beet pulp pectin extracts. Food Chem 100(4):1356–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Yapo BM, Lerouge P, Thibault JF, Ralet MC (2007b) Pectins from citrus peel cell walls contain homogalacturonans homogenous with respect to molar mass, rhamnogalacturonan-I and rhamnogalacturonan-II. Carbohydr Polym 69(3):426–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Subunit of Pedagogy in Biochemistry and Microbiology, Unit of Training and Research in AgroforestryUniversity of Jean Lorougnon GUEDE (UJLoG)DaloaCôte d’Ivoire

Personalised recommendations