Advertisement

Characterization of Psyllium (Plantago ovata) Polysaccharide and Its Uses

Living reference work entry

Abstract

The Plantago is one of the genera in family Plantaginaceae, a large genus of herbs or sub-herbs distributed mostly in the temperate region and a few in the tropics. Psyllium has been in use as a medicinal agent since ancient times throughout the world. It is used for treatment of constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, and high blood pressure. In olden days it was also used topically to treat skin irritations, such as poison ivy reactions and insect bites and stings. The husk of the seeds of various species of psyllium is used for its medicinal properties. The primary ingredient of the seeds and husk is a mucilaginous polysaccharide. Psyllium has been reported for the treatment of constipation, diarrhea, and irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis), colon cancer, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. When mixed with water, the therapeutic efficacy of the drug is due to the swelling of the mucilaginous seed coat which gives bulk and lubrication. Psyllium increases the volume of the feces by absorbing water in the gastrointestinal tract, which stimulates peristalsis. Modification of the polysaccharide by cross-linking or derivatization has been done to investigate its use as pharmaceutical excipient with multifarious roles. Various cross-linkers that have been studied include methacrylamide, N,N-methylenebisacrylamide, and polymethacrylamide.

Keywords

Psyllium Ispaghula Dietary fibers Constipation Irritable bowel syndrome Cancer Hyperlipidemia Acrylamides Excipients 

Abbreviations

AAm

Acrylamide

APS

Ammonium persulfate

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

GLUT-4

Glucose transporter protein

HEMA

Hydroxylethylmethacrylate

HLA-B2712

Human leukocyte antigen

IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome

IP

Indian Pharmacopoeia

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

MAAm

Methacrylamide

N,NMBAAm

N,N-methylenebisacrylamide

NVP

N-vinylpyrrolidone

PAM

Polyacrylamide

PMA

Polymethacrylic acid

PVA

Polyvinyl alcohol

RAPD

Random amplified polymorphic DNA

SCFA

Short-chain fatty acids

SHP

Seed husk of psyllium

References

  1. Agrawal SS, Pariddhavi M (2012) Herbal drug technology, 2nd edn. Universities Press, India, pp 715, 721Google Scholar
  2. Alternative Medicine Review (2002) volume 7, Number 2 http://www.thorne.com/altmedrev/.fulltext/7/2/155.pdf (cited on 20 April 2014)
  3. Anderson JW (1995) Short-chain fatty acids and lipid metabolism: human studies. In: Cummings JH, Rombeau JL, Sakata T (eds) Physiological and clinical aspects of short-chain fatty acids. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 509–523Google Scholar
  4. Anderson JW, Allgood LD, Turner J et al (1999) Effects of psyllium on glucose and serum lipid responses in men with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr 70:466–473Google Scholar
  5. Anderson JW, Allgood LD, Lawrence A et al (2000a) Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium intake adjunctive to diet therapy in men and women with hypercholesterolemia: meta-analysis of 8 controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 71:472–479Google Scholar
  6. Anderson JW, Davidson MH, Blone L et al (2000b) Long-term cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium as an adjunct to diet therapy in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr 71:1433–1438Google Scholar
  7. Anderson JW, Baird P, Davis RH et al (2009) Health benefits of dietary fiber. Nutr Rev 67(4):188–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andreev PV (2004) Using modified starch in Russian Pharmaceutical Industry. J Pharm Chem 38(8):447–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Attama AA, Schiche BC, Muller CC (2006) Further characterization of Theobroma oil-beeswax admixtures as lipid matrices for improved drug delivery systems. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 64(3):294–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Basavaraj SP, Vinayak S, Kulkarni AR (2011) Development and evaluation of psyllium seed husk polysaccharide based wound dressing films. Orient Pharm Exp Med 11:123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bell LP, Hectorne K, Reynolds H, Hunninghake DB (1989) Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid. J Am Med Asso 261:3419–3423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berg JM (2007) Biochemistry, 6th edn. W.H. Freeman, New York, pp 310–323Google Scholar
  13. Bliss DZ, Jung HJ, Savik K et al (2001) Supplementation with dietary fiber improves fecal incontinence. Nurs Res 50:203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bluementhal M et al (1998) Therapeutic guide to herbal medicines. The Complete Commission E Monographs. American Botanical Council, Austin, pp 190–192Google Scholar
  15. Bouchoucha MG, Faye A, Savarieau B, Arsac M (2004) Effect of an oral bulking agent and a rectal laxative administered alone or in combination for the treatment of constipation. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 28:438–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradley PR (1983) British herbal compendium, vol 1. British Herbal Medicine Association, Bournemouth, pp 199–200Google Scholar
  17. British Pharmacopoeia (1968) Published on the recommendation of the Medicines Commission pursuant to the Medicines Act 3rd edn. Medicines Commission, H.M. Stationery Office, Great Britain, pp 34–15Google Scholar
  18. Broader JH, Gunn IF, Williams JA (1974) Evaluation of a bulk-forming evacuant in the management of hemorrhoids. Br J Surg 61:142–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bruneton J (1995) Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, medicinal plants. Techniques & documentation, 1st edn. Lavoisier Publishers, Paris, p 915Google Scholar
  20. Bruneton J (1999) Pharmacognosy & phytochemistry medicinal plants. Techniques & documentation, vol 81, 2nd edn. Lavoisier Publishers, Paris, pp 106–109Google Scholar
  21. Burton R, Manninen V (1982) Influence of a psyllium- based fibre preparation on faecal and serum parameters. Acta Med Scand 668:S91–S94Google Scholar
  22. Campbell NA (1996) Biology, 4th edn. Benjamin Cummings, New York, p 23Google Scholar
  23. Cheng Y, Ohlsson L, Duan R-D (2004) Psyllium and fat in diets differentially affect the activities and expressions of colonic sphingomyelinases and caspase in mice. Br J Nutr 91:715–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Degan LP, Phillips SF (1996) How well dose stool form reflects colonic transit? Gut 39:109–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients) (2005), Chapter 7: Dietary, Functional and Total fiber. US Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library and National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (cited on 15 April 2014)Google Scholar
  26. Dietary reference values for carbohydrates and dietary fiber. European Food Safety Authority. (cited on 14 April 2014)Google Scholar
  27. Dolz M, Hermandez MJ, Delegido J et al (2007) Influence of xanthum gum and locust bean gum upon flow and thixotropic behaviour of food emulsions containing modified starch. J Food Engg 81(1):179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Drews L, Kies C, Fox HM (1981) Effect of dietary fiber on copper, zinc, and magnesium utilization by adolescent boys. Am J Clin Nutr 32:1893–1897Google Scholar
  29. Duke JA (1985) Handbook of medicinal herbs. CRC Press, Boca Raton, p 209Google Scholar
  30. Eastwood M, Kritchevsky D (2005) Dietary fiber: how did we get where we are? Annu Rev Nutr 25:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Etman MA (1995) Effect of a bulk forming laxative on the bioavailability of carbamazepine in man. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 21:1901–1906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Everson GT, Daggy BP, McKinley C, Story JA (1992) Effects of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid on LDL-cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in hypercholesterolemic men. J Lipid Res 33:1183–1192Google Scholar
  33. Fernandez ML (1995) Distinct mechanisms of plasma LDL lowering by dietary fiber in the guinea pig: specific effects of pectin, guar gum, and psyllium. J Lipid Res 36:2394–2404Google Scholar
  34. Fernandez ML, Ruiz LR, Conde AK et al (1995) Psyllium reduces plasma LDL in guinea pigs by altering hepatic cholesterol homeostasis. J Lipid Res 36:1128–1138Google Scholar
  35. Fernandez BF, Hinojosa J, Sanchez JL et al (1999) Randomized clinical trial of plantago ovata seeds (dietary fiber) as compared with mesalamine in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 94:427–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fischer M, Nanxiong Y, Gray G et al (2004a) The gel forming polysaccharide of Psyllium husk. Carbohydr Res 4:339Google Scholar
  37. Fischer HM, Nanxiong Y, Ralph RGJ, Andersond L, Marletta JA (2004b) The gel forming polysaccharide of psyllium husk (P. ovate Forsk). Carbohydr Res 339:2009–2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Galvez M, Martin CC, Lopez LM, Cortes F, Ayuso MJ (2003) Cytotoxic effect of Plantago spp. on cancer cell lines. J Ethnopharma 88:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ganji V, Kies CV (1994) Psyllium husk fibre supplementation to soybean and coconut oil diets of humans: effect on fat digestibility and faecal fatty acid excretion. Eur J Clin Nutr 48:595–597Google Scholar
  40. Gattuso JM, Kamm MA (1994) Adverse effects of drugs used in the management of constipation and diarrhea. Drug Saf 10:47–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. George M, Abraham TE (2007) pH sensitive alginate-guar gum hydrogel for the controlled delivery of protein drugs. Int J Pharm 335(1–2):123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gepts P (1993) The use of molecular and biochemical markers in crop-evolution studies. In: Hecht MK (ed) Evolutionary biology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 51–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gholardi E, Tavant A, Celandroni F et al (2000) Effect of a novel mucoadhesive polysaccharide obtained from tamarind seeds on the intraocular penetration of Gentamicin and Ofloxacin in rabbits. J Antimicrob Chemother 46:831–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gupta AK (2005) Handbook on herbs: cultivation & processing. Asia Pacific Business Press Inc, Delhi, pp 329–330Google Scholar
  45. Hänsel R et al (1994a) Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, vol 6, 5th edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 361–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hänsel R, Keller K, Pimpler H, Schneider G (1994b) Plantago. In: Drogen P-Z (ed) Hagers handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis, vol 6, 5th edn. Springer, Berlin, pp 221–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hartwell JL (1982) Plants used against cancer: a survey. Quarterman Publications, Lawrence (cited on 16 May 2014)Google Scholar
  48. Horton JD, Cuthbert JA, Spady DK (1994) Regulation of hepatic 7 alpha-hydroxylase expression by dietary psyllium in the hamster. J Clin Invest 93:2084–2092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. http://phytosanitorysolution.com/ (cited on 15 April 2014)
  50. Indian Pharmacopoeia (2010) Government of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Published by the Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission, vol 3, pp 2153Google Scholar
  51. Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL, Wolever T, Vuksan V (1990) Fiber and physiological and potentially therapeutic effects of slowing carbohydrate absorption. In: Furda I, Brine CJ (eds) New developments in dietary fiber. Plenum Press, New York, pp 129–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jones PJ, Varady KA (2008) Are functional foods redefining nutritional requirements? Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 33(1):118–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Khourefieh HA, Herald TJ, Aramouni F, Alavi S (2007) Intrinsic viscosity and viscoelastic properties of xanthan/guar mixtures in dilute solutions. Food Res Int 40(7):883–893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Koch A, Voderholzer WA, Klauser AG, Muller LS (1997) Symptoms in chronic constipation. Dis Colon Return 40:902–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kulkarni GT, Gowtharnarajan K et al (2005) Development of controlled release spheroids using natural polysaccharides as a release modifier. Drug Deliv 12(4):201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kumar R, Sharma K (2013) Biodegradable polymethacrylic acid grafted psyllium for controlled drug delivery systems. Front Chem Sci Eng 7(1):116–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kumar A, Kumar N, Vij JC, Sarin SK, Anand BS (1987) Optimal dosage of ispaghula husk in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: correlation of symptom relief with whole gut transit time and stool weight. Gut 28:150–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Levin EG, Miller VT, Muesing RA et al (1990) Comparison of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid and cellulose as adjuncts to a prudent diet in the treatment of mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Arch Intern Med 150:1822–1827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Liangli Yu, Zhuohong Xie and Wei Liu (2012) Nutraceutical and health properties of psyllium. In: Liangli L Yu, Rong Tsao, Fereidoon Shahidi (eds) Cereals and pulses: nutraceutical properties and health benefits. Wiley. doi:10.1002/9781118229415.ch11) (cited on 18 May 2014)Google Scholar
  60. Majmudar H, Mourya V, Devdhe S, Chandak R (2008) Pharmaceutical applications of ispaghula husk: mucilage. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 18(1):49–55Google Scholar
  61. Marteau P et al (1994) Digestibility and bulking effect of ispaghula husks in healthy humans. Gut 35:1747–1752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Matheson HB, Colon IS, Story JA (1995) Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity is increased by dietary modification with psyllium hydrocolloid, pectin, cholesterol and cholestyramine in rats. J Nutr 125:454–458Google Scholar
  63. Miyazaki S, Suisha F, Kawasaki N et al (1998) Thermally reversible xyloglucan gels as a vehicle for rectal delivery. J Cont Release 56(1–3):75–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. New HMPC Commission, (Herbal Medicinal Products Committee) The European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), WHO vol 1 (cited on 18 May 2014).Google Scholar
  65. Nordgaard I, Hove H, Clausen MR, Mortensen PB (1996) Colonic production of butyrate in patients with previous colonic cancer during long-term treatment with dietary fibre (Plantago ovate seeds). Scand J Gastroenterol 31:1011–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Olson BH, Anderson SM, Becker MP et al (1997) Psyllium-enriched cereals lower blood total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, but not HDL cholesterol, in hypercholesterolemic adults: results of a meta-analysis. J Nutr 127:1973–1980Google Scholar
  67. Pal MD, Raychoudhuri SS (2004) Estimation in genetic variability in Plantago ovata cultivars. Biol Plant 47:459–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Park HS, Lee JY, Cho SH et al (2002) Colon delivery of prednisolone based on chitosan coated polysaccharide tablets. Arch Pharma Res 25(6):964–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pearlman BB (1990) Interaction between lithium salts and ispaghula husks. Lancet 335:416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Perez MM, Gomez CA, Colombo LT et al (1996) Effect of fiber supplements on internal bleeding hemorrhoids. Hepatogastroenterology 43:1504–1507Google Scholar
  71. Qvitzau S, Matzen P, Madsen P (1988) Treatment of chronic diarrhoea: loperamide versus ispaghula husk and calcium. Scand J Gastroenterol 23:1237–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rangari VD (2008) Pharmacognosy & phytochemistry, vol 1, 2nd edn. Career Publications, India, pp 202–204Google Scholar
  73. Raychaudhuri SS, Pramanik S (1997) Comparative studies on DNA content and superoxide dismutase isozymes of Plantago ovata, P. psyllium, P. indica, P. lanceolata. J Med Arom Plant Sci 19:964–967Google Scholar
  74. Read NW (1986) Dietary fiber and bowel transit. In: Vahouny GV, Kritchevsky D (eds) Dietary fiber basic and clinical aspects. Plenum Press, New York, pp 91–100Google Scholar
  75. Reynolds M (1993) The extra pharmacopeia, 30th edn. The Pharmaceutical Press, London, p 900Google Scholar
  76. Romero AL, Romero JE, Galviz S, Fernandez ML (1998) Cookies enriched with psyllium or oat bran lower plasma LDL cholesterol in normal and hypercholesterolemic men from Northern Mexico. J Am Coll Nutr 17:601–608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sakkinen M, Linna A, Ojala S et al (2003) In vivo evaluation of matrix granules containing microcrystalline chitosan as a gel forming excipients. Int J Pharm 250(1):227–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Samantaray S, Dhagat U, Maiti S (2010) Evaluation of genetic relationships in Plantago species using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Plant Biotechnol 27:297–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sen G, Mishra S, Usha Rani G, Rani P, Prasad R (2010) Microwave initiated synthesis of polyacrylamide grafted psyllium and its application as a flocculant. Int J Biol Macromol 50:369–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Singh B, Chauhan N, Kumar S, Bala R (2008) Psyllium and copolymers of 2-hydroxylethylmethacrylate and acrylamide-based novel devices for the use in colon specific antibiotic drug delivery. Int J Pharm 352:74–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Singh B, Kumar S (2008) Synthesis and characterization of psyllium-NVP based drug delivery system through radiation crosslinking polymerization. Nucl Inst Methods Phys Res 266:3417–3430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Singh B, Chauhan N (2010) Dietary fiber psyllium based hydrogels for use in insulin delivery. Int J Diabetes Mellitus 2:32–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Singh B, Sharma V (2010) Design of psyllium–PVA–acrylic acid based novel hydrogels for use in antibiotic drug delivery. Int J Pharm 389:94–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Sölter H, Lorenz D (1983) Summary of clinical results with prodiem plain, a bowel regulating agent. Today’s Ther Trends 1:45–59Google Scholar
  85. Sprecher DL, Harris BV, Goldberg AC et al (1993) Efficacy of psyllium in reducing serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic patients on high- or low-fat diets. Ann Intern Med 119:545–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stewart RB, Hale WE, Moore MT et al (1991) Effect of psyllium hydrophilic mucilloid on serum cholesterol in the elderly. Dig Dis Sci 36:329–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sumath S, Ray AR (2002) Release behaviour of drugs from tamarind seeds polysaccharides tablets. J Pharm Sci 5(1):12–18Google Scholar
  88. Terpstra AH, Lapre JA, de Vries HT, Beynen AC (2000) Hypocholesterolemic effect of dietary psyllium in female rats. Ann Nutr Metab 44:223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Thanou M, Verhoef JC, Marbach P (2000) Intestinal absorption of octreotide: N-trimethyl chitosan chloride ameliorates the permeability and absorption properties of the somatostatin analogue in vitro and in vivo. J Pharm Sci 89(7):951–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Trease GE, Evans WC (2008) A textbook of pharmacognosy, Indian edn, 16th edn. W B Saunders, Noida, pp 168, 215, 193Google Scholar
  91. Trivedi PC (2004) Medicinal plants utilisation & conservation. Avishkar Publishers & Distributors, Jaipur, pp 121–129Google Scholar
  92. Turley SD, Daggy BP, Dietschy JM (1994) Psyllium augments the cholesterol-lowering action of cholestyramine in hamsters by enhancing sterol loss from the liver. Gastroenterology 107:444–452Google Scholar
  93. Turnbull WH, Thomas HG (1995) The effect of Plantago ovata seed containing preparation on appetite variables, nutrient and energy intake. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 19:338–342Google Scholar
  94. Tyler VE, Brady LR, Robbers JE (1988) Pharmacognosy, 9th edn. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 52–53Google Scholar
  95. United States Pharmacopoeia (2006) The official compendia of standards. Asian Edition, National Formulary, pp 1863, 1864Google Scholar
  96. Vahabi AA, Lotif A, Solouki M, Bahrami S (2008) Molecular and morphological markers for the evaluation of diversity between Plantago ovata in Iran. Biotechnology 7:702–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vega-Lopez S, Vidal-Quintanar RL, Fernandez ML (2001) Sex and hormonal status influence plasma lipid responses to psyllium. Am J Clin Nutr 74:435–441Google Scholar
  98. Voderholzer WA, Schatke W, Muhldorfer BE et al (1997) Clinical response to dietary fiber treatment of chronic constipation. Am J Gastroenterol 92:95–98Google Scholar
  99. Webster DJ, Pugh DC, Craven JL (1978) The use of bulk evacuant in patients with hemorrhoids. Br J Surg 65:291–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Weickert MO, Pfeiffer AF (2008) Metabolic effects of dietary fiber and any other substance that consume and prevention of diabetes. J Nutr 138(3):439–442Google Scholar
  101. Whitkus R, Doebley J, Wendel JF (1994) Nuclear DNA markers in systematics and evolution. In: Phillips L, Vasil IK (eds) DNA based markers in plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 116–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wolff K, Morgan-Richards M, Davison AW (2000) Patterns of molecular genetic variation in Plantago major and P. intermedia in relation to ozone resistance. New Phytol 145:501–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Yu LL, Lutterodt H, Cheng Z (2009) Beneficial health properties of psyllium and approaches to improve its functionalities. Adv Food Nutr Res 55:193–220. doi:10.1016/s1043-4526(08)00404-x (cited on 18 May 2014)Google Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PharmaceuticsAISSMS College of PharmacyPuneIndia

Personalised recommendations