Encyclopedia of Renaissance Philosophy

Living Edition
| Editors: Marco Sgarbi

Heat in Renaissance Science

  • Filip A. A. Buyse
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02848-4_925-1

Abstract

The term “heat” originates from the Old English word hǣtu, a word of Germanic origin; related to the Dutch “hitte” and German “Hitze.” Today, we distinguish three different meanings of the word “heat.” First, “heat” is understood in colloquial English as “hotness.” There are, in addition, two scientific meanings of “heat.” “Heat” can have the meaning of the portion of energy that changes with a change of temperature. And finally, “heat” can have the meaning of the transfer of thermal energy from a hotter to a colder system or body.

By contrast, for the Ancients and Scholastics, “heat” was a manifest, real quality of bodies and there was an ontological distinction between biological or innate heat (which was regarded as an innate principle of life for warm-blooded animals) and the physical manifest heat of external objects, which is potentially harmful. During the late Renaissance period, however, both views changed fundamentally and evolved – via the application of physical and mechanical analogies – into the foundations for today’s unified mechanistic theory of heat.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

Primary Literature

  1. Aristotle. 1984. Generation of animals. In The complete works of Aristotle, ed. Jonathan Barnes, vol. 1, 1111–1218. Princeton: Princeton Press University.Google Scholar
  2. Avicenna. 2014. Ibn Sina’s remarks and admonitions: Physics and metaphysics: An analysis and annotated translation. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bacon, F. 1996. Abecedarium novum naturae. In The Oxford Francis Bacon edition, ed. G. Rees and L. Jardine, vol. XIII. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  4. Biancani, Giuseppe. 1620. Sphaera mundi seu cosmographia, demonstratiua, ac facili methodo tradita. Bologna: Sebastiano Bonomi for Geronimo Tamburini.Google Scholar
  5. Boyle, Robert. 1675. Experiments and notes about the mechanical origine or production of heat and cold. In Works of Robert Boyle, ed. Michael Hunter and Edward B. Davis, vol. 8, 331–361. London: Pickering & Chatto.Google Scholar
  6. Campanella, T. 1591. Philosophia sensibus demonstrata. Neapoli: Apud Horatium Saluianum.Google Scholar
  7. Delmedigo, J.S. 1629. Ma’yan Ganim. Amsterdam: be-vet Menašeh ben Yiśraʼel.Google Scholar
  8. Descartes, René. 1998. The world and other writings. Trans. S. Gaukroger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Descartes, R. 2017. Descartes’ Treatise on man and its reception, ed. S. Gaukroger and D. Antoine-Mahut. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  10. Fernel, J. 1548. De abditis rerum causis. Paris: Fernel J.Google Scholar
  11. Fludd, Robert. 1617–1624. Utriusque cosmi maioris scilicet et minoris metaphysica, physica atque technica historia in duo volumina secundum cosmi differentiam diuisa. Oppenhemii: aere Johan-Theodori de Bry. Typis Hieronymi Galleri.Google Scholar
  12. Fludd, Robert. 1638. Philosophia moysaica. In quia sapientia & scientia creationis & creaturarum …. Gaudae: Petrus Rammazenius.Google Scholar
  13. Galenus, Claudius. 1991. On the therapeutic method. Trans. R.J. Hankinson. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  14. Galileo. 1960. The assayer. Trans. S. Drake. In The controversy on the comets, ed. S. Drake and C.D. O’Malley, 151–336. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  15. Harvey, W. 1995. The anatomical exercises: De motu cordis and De circulatione sanguinis, in English translation, ed. G. Keynes. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  16. Heron, Alexandrinus. 1971. The pneumatics of Hero of Alexandria. New York: American Elsevier.Google Scholar
  17. Lucretius. 2014. De rerum natura. Trans. E.J. Kenney. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Santorio, Santorio. 1660. Opera. Venetiis: Apud Franciscum Brogiollum.Google Scholar
  19. Telesio, Bernardino. 2015. De rerum natura iuxta propria principia. Cosenza: ASEmit.Google Scholar
  20. Van Helmont, J.B., and F.M. van Helmont. 1662. Oriatrike or, Physick refined. London: Printed for L. Loyd.Google Scholar
  21. Vesalius. 1543. De humani corporis fabrica libri septem. Basileae: Ex officina Ioannis Oporini.Google Scholar

Secondary Literature

  1. Adler, Jacob. 1997. J.S. Delmedigo and the liquid-in-glass thermometer. Annals of Science 54 (3): 293–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boenke, Michaela. 2013. Bernardino Telesio. Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/telesio/. Accessed 8 Feb 2018.
  3. Buyse, Filip. 2015. The distinction between primary properties and secondary qualities in Galileo Galilei’s natural philosophy. Cahiers du Séminaire québécois en philosophie moderne/Working Papers of the Quebec Seminar in Early Modern Philosophy 1: 20–43.Google Scholar
  4. Chaldecott, J. 1952. Bartolomeo Telioux and the early history of the thermometer. Bulletin of the British Society for the History of Science 1 (8): 215–216.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950563600000749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ernst, Germana. 2014. Tommaso Campanella. Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/campanella/. Accessed 8 Feb 2018.
  6. Greenblatt, Stephen. 2012. The swerve. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  7. MacGee, Thomas D. 1988. Principles and methods of temperature measurement. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Mach, E. 2013. Principles of the theory of heat. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  9. Mendelsohn, Evereth. 1964. Heat and life: The development of the theory of animal heat. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Middleton, W.E. Knowles. 1966. A history of the thermometer and its use in meteorology. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press.Google Scholar
  11. Siraisi, Nancy G. 2016. Avicenna in Italy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Taylor, F.S. 1942. The origin of the thermometer. Annals of Science 5 (2): 129–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Valleriani, Matteo. 2010. Galileo engineer. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of OxfordOxfordUK

Section editors and affiliations

  • Matteo Valleriani
    • 1
  1. 1.Max Planck Institute for the History of ScienceBerlinGermany