Bilingual Education: What the Research Tells Us

  • Stephen May
Living reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Language and Education book series (ELE)


This chapter explores key research findings about bilingual education and the related efficacy of various approaches to teaching bilingual students. Its principal focus is on the research to date on the most common forms of bilingual education. This research consistently supports the efficacy of bilingual education, particularly when it is predicated on additive bilingual principles. Even so, ongoing public opposition to bilingual education, often highly misinformed, remains strong. The chapter also examines recent research around the notions of “dynamic bilingualism” and “translanguaging,” along with their pedagogical implications for existing bilingual programs.


Additive bilingualism Biliteracy Bilingual programs Dynamic bilingualism Enrichment bilingual programs Heritage/indigenous programs Immersion programs Linguistic interdependence Maintenance bilingual programs Subtractive bilingualism Transitional bilingual programs 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Education and Social WorkThe University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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