Advertisement

Discursive Approaches to Policy

  • Francis M. HultEmail author
Living reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Language and Education book series (ELE)

Abstract

What is today recognized as a discursive approach to policy might appear to be a fashionable innovation; however, it has been cultivated over time as the field of language planning and policy (LPP) has matured. This contribution traces the early foundations of an approach to LPP that focuses on the interplay between human agency and societally circulating (language) ideologies. It examines work that has focused on national policies as well as research focused on policy in practice, including how language practies can be understood as de facto language policy. Challenges related to making connections between policy and practice are also discussed. Finally, future prospects for researching language policy with a discourse analytic orientation are considered.

Keywords

Discourse Ethnography Ideology Language policy Language planning Practice 

References

  1. Amir, A. (2013). Doing language policy. Doctoral dissertation, Linköping University, Linköping. Available from http://liu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A660735&dswid=-666
  2. Arias, M. B., & Faltis, C. (Eds.). (2012). Implementing educational language policy in Arizona: Legal, historical and current practices in SEI. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  3. Baker, P., Gabrielatos, C., Khosravinik, M., Kryzanowski, M., McEnery, T., & Wodak, R. (2008). A useful methodological synergy? Combining critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics to examine discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press. Discourse & Society, 19, 273–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baldauf, R. B. (2008). Rearticulating the case for micro language planning in a language ecology context. In A. J. Liddicoat & R. B. Baldauf (Eds.), Language planning in local contexts (pp. 18–41). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  5. Ball, S. J. (2006). Education policy and social class: The selected works of Stephen J. Ball. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  6. Blommaert, J. (1996). Language planning as a discourse on language and society: The linguistic ideology of a scholarly tradition. Language Problems and Language Planning, 20(3), 199–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blommaert, J. (2005). Discourse: A critical introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Compton, S. E. (2013). Implementing language policy for deaf students in a Texas school district. International Multilingual Research Journal, 7(2), 138–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis, K. A. (2014). Engaged language policy and practices. Language Policy, 13, 83–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dressler, R. (2015). Sign geist: Promoting bilingualism through the linguistic landscape of school signage. International Journal of Multilingualism, 12(1), 128–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fishman, J. A. (1972). The relationship between micro- and macro-sociolinguistics in the study of who speaks what language to whom and when. In J. B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics: Selected readings (pp. 15–32). New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  12. Fitzsimmons-Doolan, S. (2015). Applying corpus linguistics to language policy. In F. M. Hult & D. C. Johnson (Eds.), Research methods in language policy and planning: A practical guide (pp. 107–117). Malden: Wiley-Blackwell.Google Scholar
  13. Haugen, E. (1983). The implementation of corpus planning: Theory and practice. In J. Cobarrubias & J. A. Fishman (Eds.), Progress in language planning: International perspectives (pp. 269–290). Berlin: Mouton.Google Scholar
  14. Heath, S. B. (1971). Telling tongues: Language policy in Mexico, colony to nation. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  15. Hornberger, N. H. (1989). Bilingual education and language maintenance. Dordrecht: Foris.Google Scholar
  16. Hornberger, N. H., & Johnson, D. C. (2011). The ethnography of language policy. In T. McCarty (Ed.), Ethnography and language policy (pp. 273–289). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  17. Hult, F. M. (2010). Analysis of language policy discourses across the scales of space and time. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 202, 7–24.Google Scholar
  18. Hult, F. M. (2015). Making policy connections across scales using nexus analysis. In F. M. Hult & D. C. Johnson (Eds.), Research methods in language policy and planning: A practical guide (pp. 215–231). Malden: Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. Hult, F. M., & Pietikäinen, S. (2014). Shaping discourses of multilingualism through a language ideological debate: The case of Swedish in Finland. Journal of Language and Politics, 13(1), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hymes, D. H. (1974). Foundations in sociolinguistics: An ethnographic approach. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  21. Johnson, D. C. (2011). Critical discourse analysis and the ethnography of language policy. Critical Discourse Studies, 8(4), 267–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnson, D. C. (2013). Language policy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liddicoat, A. J., & Taylor-Leech, K. (2014). Micro language planning for multilingual education: Agency in local contexts. Current Issues in Language Planning, 15(3), 237–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Martin-Jones, M. (2011). Language policies, multilingual classrooms: Resonances across continents. In F. M. Hult & K. A. King (Eds.), Educational linguistics in practice: Applying the local globally and the global locally (pp. 3–15). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  25. McCarty, T. (Ed.). (2011). Ethnography and language policy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. McCarty, T., Collins, J., & Hopson, R. (2011). Dell Hymes and the new language policy studies: Update from an underdeveloped country. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 42(4), 335–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Menken, K. (2008). English language learners left behind: Standardized testing as language policy. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  28. Menken, K., & García, O. (Eds.). (2010). Negotiating language policies in schools: Educators as policymakers. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Milani, T. (2009). At the intersection between power and knowledge: An analysis of a Swedish policy document on language testing for citizenship. Journal of Language and Politics, 8(2), 287–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Neustupný, J. V., & Nekvapil, J. (2003). Language management in the Czech Republic. Current Issues in Language Planning, 4(3–4), 181–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ricento, T. (2000). Historical and theoretical perspectives in language policy and planning. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 4(2), 196–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ricento, T. (2005). Problems with the ‘language-as-resource’ discourse in the promotion of heritage languages in the USA. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 9(3), 348–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ricento, T., & Hornberger, N. H. (1996). Unpeeling the onion: Language planning and policy and the ELT professional. TESOL Quarterly, 30(3), 401–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schiffman, H. F. (1996). Linguistic culture and language policy. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Scollon, R., & Scollon, S. W. (2004). Nexus analysis. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  36. Shohamy, E. (2009). Language policy as experiences. Language Problems and Language Planning, 33(2), 185–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Spolsky, B. (2004). Language policy. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Spolsky, B. (2005). Is language policy applied linguistics? In P. Bruthiaux, D. Atkinson, W. G. Eggington, W. Grabe, & V. Ramanathan (Eds.), Directions in applied linguistics (pp. 26–36). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  39. Spolsky, B. (2009). Language management. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sutton, M., & Levinson, B. A. U. (2001). Policy as practice: Toward a comparative sociocultural analysis of educational policy. Westport: Ablex.Google Scholar
  41. Tollefson, J. W. (1991). Planning language, planning inequality: Language policy in the community. New York: Longman.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lund UniversityLundSweden

Personalised recommendations