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Stress

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Synonyms

Anxiety; Distress; Mental stress; Pressure; Psychological stress

Definition

Stress is a transactional process occurring when an event is perceived as relevant to an individual’s well-being, has the potential for harm or loss, and requires psychological, physiological, and/or behavioral efforts to manage the event and its outcomes (Lazarus and Folkman 1984). The stimuli or events that cause stress are referred to as stressors (Mason 1975). Stress often results in psychological distress and efforts to cope with the event. Physiological stress responses are often in support of efforts to manage the stressful event and protect the organism from harm (McEwen and Seeman 1999). Stress may not be a uniformly negative experience, as stressful events may also include the potential for benefit and growth (Lazarus & Folkman). Early views of stress focused on physical stress – events that perturb the resting homeostasis of the body, such as changes in temperature or physical injury...

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-39903-0_285
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References and Readings

  • Cohen, S., Kessler, R. C., & Gordon, L. U. (1995). Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists. New York: Oxford University Press.

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  • Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.

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  • Mason, J. W. (1975). A historical view of the stress field (Parts I and II). Journal of Human Stress, 1, 6–12 & 22–36.

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  • McEwen, B. S., & Seeman, T. (1999). Protective and damaging effects of mediators of stress. Elaborating and testing the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the NY Academy of Science, 896, 30–47.

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  • Obrist, P. A. (1981). Cardiovascular psychophysiology: A perspective. New York: Plenum Press.

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  • Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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  • Tomaka, J., Blascovich, J., Kelsey, R. M., & Leitten, C. L. (1993). Subjective, physiological, and behavioral effects of threat and challenge appraisals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 248–260.

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Correspondence to Kristen Salomon .

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Salomon, K. (2020). Stress. In: Gellman, M.D. (eds) Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-39903-0_285

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-39903-0_285

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  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-39901-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-39903-0

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