Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology

Living Edition
| Editors: Stefan Offermanns, Walter Rosenthal

Apelin

  • Marta Podgórska
  • Katarzyna Pietraszek-Gremplewicz
  • Dorota NowakEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21573-6_10036-1
  • 13 Downloads

Synonyms

Definition

Apelin (APLN) is a small adipokine released primarily by adipose tissue. It is also expressed in many organs, including the brain, heart, lung, kidney, and stomach. It is a ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin is involved in many physiological processes, such as regulation of blood pressure, body fluid homeostasis, the endocrine stress response, cardiac contractility, angiogenesis, and energy metabolism. It may also participate in pathological processes, including heart failure, obesity, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Basic Characteristic

Apelinergic System

Apelin is an endogenous peptide first isolated from the bovine stomach in 1998, encoded by the apelin gene APLNlocated on chromosome Xq25-26.1. Its receptor APJ (APLNR) belongs to the family of seven-transmembrane proteins and is closely related to the angiotensin receptor. Apelin is secreted by adipose tissue as a...
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References

  1. Cheng J, Luo X, Huang Z, Chen L (2019) Apelin/APJ system: a potential therapeutic target for endothelial dysfunction-related diseases. J Cell Physiol 234:12149–12160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Huang Z, He L, Chen Z, Chen L (2018) Targeting drugs to APJ receptor: from signaling to pathophysiological effects. J Cell Physiol 234:61–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kuba K, Sato T, Imai Y, Yamaguchi T (2019) Apelin and Elabela/Toddler; double ligands for APJ/Apelin receptor in heart development, physiology, and pathology. Peptides 111:62–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Luo H, Han L, Xu J (2019) Apelin/APJ system: a novel promising target for neurodegenerative diseases. J Cell Physiol 235:638–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Tatemoto K, Hosoya M, Habata Y et al (1998) Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human APJ receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 251:471–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Wysocka MB, Pietraszek-Gremplewicz K, Nowak D (2018) The role of apelin in cardiovascular diseases, obesity and cancer. Front Physiol 9:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Podgórska
    • 1
  • Katarzyna Pietraszek-Gremplewicz
    • 1
  • Dorota Nowak
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Cell Pathology, Faculty of BiotechnologyUniversity of WroclawWroclawPoland