Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology

Living Edition
| Editors: Stefan Offermanns, Walter Rosenthal

NADPH Oxidase

  • Fan JiangEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21573-6_10023-1



NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase (EC is an enzyme that produces superoxide anions by transferring electrons from reduced NADPH (the electron donor) to oxygen (O2). In the reaction, each NADPH molecule donates two electrons, which reduce two oxygen molecules, respectively, yielding two superoxide anions. NADPH oxidase is not a single protein but a multi-subunit protein complex (Babior 2004). While the term NADPH oxidase generally refers to such a protein complex, sometimes it is also ambiguously used to describe the catalytic subunit of the enzyme (aka the NOX subunit). The NADPH oxidase family contains different isoforms of the catalytic subunit, which may differ in the enzyme composition, subcellular localization, expression patterns, and/or biochemical properties. Some isoforms of NADPH oxidase produce hydrogen peroxide instead of superoxide.

Basic Characteristics

Prototype NADPH...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Altenhofer S, Radermacher KA, Kleikers PW, Wingler K, Schmidt HH (2015) Evolution of NADPH oxidase inhibitors: selectivity and mechanisms for target engagement. Antioxid Redox Signal 23(5):406–427.  https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2013.5814CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Babior BM (2004) NADPH oxidase. Curr Opin Immunol 16(1):42–47. S0952791503001936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bedard K, Krause KH (2007) The NOX family of ROS-generating NADPH oxidases: physiology and pathophysiology. Physiol Rev 87(1):245–313.  https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00044.2005. 87/1/245 [pii]CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Drummond GR, Selemidis S, Griendling KK, Sobey CG (2011) Combating oxidative stress in vascular disease: NADPH oxidases as therapeutic targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov 10(6):453–471.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd3403. nrd3403 [pii]CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Proteomics of Shandong ProvinceQilu Hospital of Shandong UniversityJinanChina
  2. 2.Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic MedicineShandong UniversityJinanChina