Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology

Living Edition
| Editors: Stefan Offermanns, Walter Rosenthal

Botulinum Neurotoxins

  • Ornella Rossetto
  • Cesare MontecuccoEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21573-6_10014-1
  • 10 Downloads

Definition, Serotypes, and Subtypes

The botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) form a family of protein neurotoxins endowed with a set of particular properties that have made them powerful therapeutics for a variety of human syndromes. Their development as medicines is still undergoing. They are synthesized by different Clostridia though bacteria of other phyla may harbor the gene encoding for BoNTs. They consist of two chains (L, 50 kDa and H, 100 kDa) linked by a single interchain disulfide bond (Fig. 1a). They are produced in eight different serotypes (indicated by letters BoNT/A, /B, /C, /D, /E, /F, /G, and /X) (Rossetto et al. 2014; Dong et al. 2019). In addition many subtypes of a serotype are known (dubbed with a suffix number: BoNT/A1, BoNT/A2, etc.) plus chimeric neurotoxins (BoNT/CD, BoNT/DC, BoNT/FA). Thus, the BoNT family comprises several dozens of proteins, and their number is growing as result of massive DNA sequencing. None the less all BoNTs share a four-domain structure, with...
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work in the authors’ laboratory was supported by the grant NIB-2 and RIPANE of the Ministry of Defence and from grants provided by the University of Padova.

References

  1. Dong M, Masuyer G, Stenmark P (2019) Botulinum and tetanus neurotoxins. Annu Rev Biochem 88:811–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Erbguth FJ (2004) Historical notes on botulism, Clostridium botulinum, botulinum toxin, and the idea of the therapeutic use of the toxin. Mov Disord 19(8):S2–S6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fleck-Derderian S, Shankar M, Rao AK, Chatham-Stephens K, Adjei S, Sobel J, Meltzer MI, Meaney-Delman D, Pillai SK (2017) The epidemiology of foodborne botulism outbreaks: a systematic review. Clin Infect Dis 66:S73–S81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Jankovic J (2018) An update on new and unique uses of botulinum toxin in movement disorders. Toxicon 147:84–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Mazzocchio R, Caleo M (2015) More than at the neuromuscular synapse: actions of botulinum neurotoxin A in the central nervous system. Neuroscientist 21:44–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Pirazzini M, Rossetto O, Eleopra R, Montecucco C (2017) Botulinum neurotoxins: biology, pharmacology, and toxicology. Pharmacol Rev 69:200–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Rossetto O, Pirazzini M, Montecucco C (2014) Botulinum neurotoxins: genetic, structural and mechanistic insights. Nat Rev Microbiol 12:535–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Sciences and National Research Council Institute of NeuroscienceUniversity of PadovaPadovaItaly