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The Role of Milk and Dairy Products in the Development of Obesity and Cardiometabolic Disease

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Abstract

The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly. Obesity is a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), which are the leading causes of death globally. Dairy products contribute significantly to children’s and adults’ nutrient intake, yet due to relatively high saturated fat content, the health benefits of dairy products have come under question. This chapter provides an overview of the current evidence mainly from systematic reviews and meta-analyses on dairy product consumption and risk of obesity, T2D, and CVD. The data review suggests that milk and certain dairy products are not related or inversely related to obesity in children. In adults, consumption of milk and dairy products improves body composition and enhances weight loss during energy restriction diets, while it has a neutral effect on body weight in maintenance diets. Prospective cohort studies suggest that the consumption of dairy products, with other regular or low-fat content, does not adversely affect the risk of T2D or CVD outcomes and may have a protective effect. The proposed mechanisms underlying the effect of dairy nutrients on obesity and cardiometabolic disease have not been clearly elucidated but include a beneficial role of calcium, dairy fat, and proteins on fat metabolism and excretion, appetite, and the metabolic activity of gut microbiota. There remain many uncertainties, including different effects of different types of dairy products and of different fat content. In conclusion, dairy product consumption, as part of a balanced diet, may protect against the risk of obesity, T2D, and CVD.

Keywords

Milk Dairy Obesity Cardiovascular diseases Type 2 diabetes Children Adults 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Institut Paul Bocuse Research CentreInstitut Paul BocuseEcullyFrance
  2. 2.Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Food Systems, Department of Epidemiology and Population HealthUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

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