Encyclopedia of Sustainability in Higher Education

2019 Edition
| Editors: Walter Leal Filho

Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) and Sustainable Development

  • Emma ThorntonEmail author
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11352-0_284


The Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) are the foundation of the Paris Agreement (WRI n.d.). They represent the voluntary national post-2020 climate action commitments that Parties intended to take and communicate to the United Nations (UN) Climate Change Secretariat under the 2015 Paris Agreement (WRI n.d.; Levin et al. 2015; World Bank Group 2016; Clemencon 2016). Each country developed its own commitment to combatting climate change, according to its own unique circumstances, making each INDC “nationally determined” (Levin et al. 2015). The pledges are voluntary and demonstrate a wide variety of methodologies and baselines (Clemencon 2016). When the INDCs were devised in 2015, their legal status was yet to be solidified, which made them “intended” (Levin et al. 2015). They become binding Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) when a Party ratifies the Paris Agreement (World Bank Group 2016). These INDCs collectively “contribute” towards reaching the...


Climate negotiations Paris Climate Agreement Sustainable development Climate change Mitigation Adaptation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Northeastern UniversityBostonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Madhavi Venkatesan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsNortheastern UniversityBostonUSA