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Withanolide Production in Hairy Root Culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal: A Review

  • Ganeshan SivanandhanEmail author
  • Natesan Selvaraj
  • Andy Ganapathi
  • Yong Pyo LimEmail author
Living reference work entry
  • 7 Downloads
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Indian ginseng [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal; Solanaceae] is a significant aromatic medicinal as well as industrial plant in India and in other regions. The plant has numerous pharmaceutical uses owing to synthesis of steroidal lactones, “withanolides,” mainly in leaves and roots. Hence, Govt. of India has graded this aromatic plant in top 36 cultivated precious medicinal plants in focus of immense requirement for market and medicine production. The traditional cultivation method of W. somnifera suffers from severe shortage in production to provide sufficient raw materials for phytochemical synthesis and medicinal formulations due to biotic and abiotic factors, poor seed germination, loss or low seed viability, etc. This necessitates consistent supply of raw materials to produce secondary metabolites by exploiting biotechnological tools like cell/organ cultures. Over the few decades, numerous approaches have been made to develop and optimize cell and organ culture protocols for W. somnifera such as direct and indirect organogenesis, suspension-based shoot and cell cultures, adventitious root culture, hairy root culture, and plant transformation for production of plants and withanolides. Several reports indicated the potential utilization of in vitro cell/organ cultures to be put into use in large-scale commercial multiplication of plants and secondary metabolite production as in Panax ginseng and other plants. This review presents a comprehensive account of works performed on hairy root culture of W. somnifera in the last two decades.

Keywords

Withania somnifera Biomass accumulation Carbon sources Elicitors Hairy root culture Macro elements Nitrogen sources Over expression Withanolides 

Abbreviations

ASA

Acetyl salicylic acid

b-CLAMS

Beta-carotene linoleic acid model system

DPPH

Alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picrylhydrazyl

DW

Dry weight

FW

Fresh weight

g

Gram

GI

Growth index

HPLC

High performance liquid chromatography

HR

Hairy root

IAA

Indole acetic acid

JA

Jasmonic acid

KH2PO4

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate

KNO3

Potassium nitrate

LB

Luria-Bertani medium

MeJ

Methyl jasmonate

MEP

Non-mevalonate pathway

Mg

Milligram

mM

Millimolar

MVA

Mevalonate pathway

NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NB

Nutrient Broth medium

NH4+

Ammonium ion

NO3

Nitrate ion

PAL

Phenylalanine ammonia lyase

Ri-plasmid

Hairy root-inducing plasmid

SA

Salicylic acid

T

Temperature

TCP

Tricalcium phosphate medium

T-DNA

Transfer DNA

TIS

Traditional Indian system

WS

Withania somnifera

YEP

Yeast extract peptone

YMB

Yeast mannitol broth

μg

Microgram

Notes

Acknowledgments

The first author is thankful to the Korea Research Fellowship Program (2017H1D3A1A01054325) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT, South Korea.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Molecular Genetics and Genomics Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesChungnam National UniversityDaejeonSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of BotanyPeriyar E. V. R College (Autonomous)TiruchirappalliIndia
  3. 3.Department of Biotechnology, School of Life SciencesBharathidasan UniversityTiruchirappalliIndia

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