Nanocellulose for Sustainable Future Applications

  • Ihsan Flayyih Hasan AI-JawhariEmail author
Living reference work entry


In this chapter is a review of several researches on the development and characterization of cellulose. The discussion will focus on structural, mechanical, and cellulose degradation. Nanocellulose is lightweight and has renewability, availability, low cost, and, most importantly, minimum environmental impact (eco-friendly) and little effect on animals and human health. General properties of cellulose include extensive chemical modification capability and very high aspect ratio leading to the formation of versatile semicrystalline fibers which is the unique characteristic of nanomaterials as reinforcing agents. There is a strong and complex network of hydrogen bonds that are stabilized by the ordered regions of cellulose chain packages. It resembles nanocrystalline rods. There are two main types of nanocellulose: (i) nanocrystalline and (ii) microfibrillated cellulose. Different types of plants are the main sources of cellulose, but some sea animals such as tunicates and algae are capable of producing cellulose fibers. Another type of nanocellulose is also known as bacterial cellulose. Specific bacteria mainly Gluconacetobacter strains secrete these nanofibers extra-cellularly. Because of their special fibrillary nanostructure, these bacteria have exceptional mechanical and physical properties. Its properties include high strength crystallinity and high elastic module. Bacterial cellulose is currently the subject of research in several fields of application, reinforcement in nanocomposites, biomedical applications, and fuel cell membranes.


Nanocellulose Bacterial cellulose Environment Biodegradable Renewability 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, College of Education for Pure SciencesUniversity of ThiqarAL-NasiriyaIraq

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