Advertisement

Polymer Nanocomposite Matrices: Classification, Synthesis Methods, and Applications

  • Amit Kumar Sharma
  • Priya
  • Balbir Singh KaithEmail author
Living reference work entry

Abstract

Polymeric matrices are highly preferable these days because of their eco-friendly usage, availability, and low cost. Inserting nanomaterials to the polymer matrices is further meant to be a boon as their usage is extended to a large number of applications. Nanofillers of any dimension whether 0D, 1D, 2D, or 3D have unique characteristics and applications in fields like electronics, optical sensors, biomedical applications, and many more. Their dispersion in polymer matrices prevents agglomeration, and they can be used extensively without any hindrance to their application. Polymer matrices specifically of natural origin are highly biodegradable and eco-friendly. Polymer nanocomposites can be classified on the basis of dimension of nanofiller (0D, 1D, 2D, etc.), type of nanofiller (metal hydroxide, metal sulfide, etc.), type of polymer matrix (thermosetting, thermoplastic, etc.), or on the basis of method of synthesis (in situ, ex situ). They can be synthesized through various methods such as intercalation, sol-gel, in situ polymerization, and direct mixing of nanofillers with polymer. The structure of polymer nanocomposites includes nanofillers and polymer matrix separated by an interphase showing interaction between the two. Polymer nanocomposites can be applied to various fields such as biosensors, in food packaging, and as adsorbents, in electronic devices and biomedical applications. Hence, they are widely used because of their numerous applications.

Keywords

Nanocomposite Antibacterial Biodegradable Bio-sensing Adsorbent 

References

  1. Abdelgawad AM, Hudson SM, Rojas OJ (2014) Antimicrobial wound dressing nanofiber mats from multicomponent (chitosan/silver-NPs/polyvinyl alcohol) systems. Carbohydr Polym 100:166–178.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.12.043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ajayan PM, Schadler LS, Braun PV (2004) Nanocomposite science and technology. WILEY-VCH 2003, ISBN 3-527-30359-6Google Scholar
  3. Alexandre M, Dubois P (2000) Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: preparation, properties and uses of a new class of materials. Mater Sci Eng 28(1-2):1–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anisha BS, Biswas R, Chennazhi KP, Jayakumar R (2013) Chitosan-hyaluronic acid/nano silver composite sponges for drug resistant bacteria infected diabetic wounds. Int J Biol Macromol 62:310–320.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.09.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Archana D, Dutta J, Dutta PK (2013) Evaluation of chitosan nano dressing for wound healing: characterization, in vitro and in vivo studies. Int J Biol Macromol 57:193–203.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.03.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arumugam R, Subramanyam V, Chinnadurai RK, Srinadhu ES, Subramanian B, Nallani S (2019) Development of novel mechanically stable porous nanocomposite (PVDF-PMMA/HAp/TiO2) film scaffold with nanowhiskers surface morphology for bone repair applications. Mater Lett 236:694–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asghari F, Samiei M, Adibkia K, Akbarzadeh A, Davaran S (2017) Biodegradable and biocompatible polymers for tissue engineering application: a review. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 45:185–192.  https://doi.org/10.3109/21691401.2016.1146731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Asmatulu R, Khan WS, Reddy RJ and Ceylan M (2015) Synthesis and analysis of injection-molded nanocomposites of recycled high-density polyethylene incorporated with graphene nanoflakes. Polymer Composites 36 (9):1565-1573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bent AE, Foote J, Siegel S, Faerber G, Chao R, Gormley EA (2001a) Collagen implant for treating stress urinary incontinence in women with urethral hypermobility. J Urol 166:1354–1357.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(05)65768-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bent AE, Tutrone RT, McLennan MT, Lloyd LK, Kennelly MJ, Badlani G (2001b) Treatment of intrinsic sphincter deficiency using autologous ear chondrocytes as a bulking agent. Neurourol Urodyn 20:157–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bordes P, Pollet E, Avérous L (2009) Nano-biocomposites: biodegradable polyester/nanoclay systems. Prog Polym Sci 34:125–155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2008.10.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Borenstein JT, Terai H, King KR, Weinberg EJ, Kaazempur-Mofrad MR, Vacanti JP (2002) Microfabrication technology for vascularized tissue engineering. Biomed Microdevices 4:167–175.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016040212127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Calo E, Khutoryanskiy VV (2014) Biomedical applications of hydrogels: a review of patents and commercial products. Eur Polym J.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2008.06.023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chandra P, Noh HB, Won MS, Shim YB (2011) Detection of daunomycin using phosphatidylserine and aptamer co-immobilized on Au nanoparticles deposited conducting polymer. Biosens Bioelectron 26:4442–4449.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2011.04.060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chatterjee TN, Das D, Roy RB, Tudu B, Hazarika AK, Sabhapondit S, Tamuly P, Bandyopadhyay R (2019) Development of a nickel hydroxide nanopetal decorated molecular imprinted polymer based electrode for sensitive detection of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in green tea. Sensors Actuators B Chem 283:69–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen S, Tang F, Tang L, Li L (2017) Synthesis of Cu-Nanoparticle hydrogel with self-healing and photothermal properties. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 9:20895–20903.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b04956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Costache MC, Vaughan AD, Qu H, Ducheyne P, Devore DI (2013) Tyrosine-derived polycarbonate-silica xerogel nanocomposites for controlled drug delivery. Acta Biomater 9:6544–6552.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2013.01.034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De SK, White JR (2001) Rubber technologist’s handbook, vol 1. Smithers Rapra Press, p 596. ISBN 978-1859572627
  19. Dong X, Wei C, Liang J, Liu T, Kong D, Lv F (2017) Thermosensitive hydrogel loaded with chitosan-carbon nanotubes for near infrared light triggered drug delivery. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 154:253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Du WL, Xu ZR, Han XY, Xu YL, Miao ZG (2008) Preparation, characterization and adsorption properties of chitosan nanoparticles for eosin Y as a model anionic dye. J Hazard Mater 153:152–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Echegoyen Y, Rodriguez S, Nerin C (2016) Nanoclay migration from food packaging materials. Food Addit Contam Part A 33:530–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ferreira FV, Pinheiro IF, Gouveia RF, Thim GP, Lona LMF (2017) Functionalized cellulose nanocrystals as reinforcement in biodegradable polymer nanocomposites. Polym Compos 39:E9–E29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forzani ES, Zhang H, Nagahara LA et al (2004) A conducting polymer nanojunction sensor for glucose detection. Nano Lett 4:1785–1788.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nl049080lCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Giri A, Bhowmick R, Prodhan C, Majumder D, Bhattacharya SK, Ali M (2018) Synthesis and characterization of biopolymer based hybrid hydrogel nanocomposite and study of their electrochemical efficacy. Int J Biol Macromol 123:228–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guan LZ, Zhao L, Wan YJ, Tang LC (2018) Three-dimensional graphene-based polymer nanocomposites: preparation, properties and applications. Nanoscale 10:14788–14811.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c8nr03044hCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gubin SP (2000) What is nanoparticle? Trend of development of Nanochemistry and nanotechnology. Ross Khim Zh 44:23–31Google Scholar
  27. Han S, Wang T, Li B (2017) Preparation of a hydroxyethyl–titanium dioxide–carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel cage and its effect on the removal of methylene blue. J Appl Polym Sci 134.  https://doi.org/10.1002/app.44925
  28. Hench L, Jones J (2005) Biomaterials, artificial organs and tissue engineering, 2nd edn. Woodhead Publishing Limited, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Henrique P, Camargo C, Gundappa K, Satyanarayana WF (2009) Nanocomposites: synthesis, structure, properties and new application opportunities. Mater Res 12(1):1–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hoffman AS (2002) Hydrogels for biomedical applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 54:3–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hosseinzadeh H, Abdi K (2017) Efficient removal of methylene blue using a hybrid organic–inorganic hydrogel nanocomposite adsorbent based on sodium alginate–silicone dioxide. J Inorg Organomet Polym Mater 27:1595–1612.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10904-017-0625-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hu X, Ke Y, Zhao Y, Lu S, Deng Q, Yu C, Peng F (2019) Synthesis, characterization and solution properties of β-cyclodextrin-functionalized polyacrylamide/montmorillonite nanocomposites. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 560:336–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Huang TC, Yeh JM, Lai CY (2012) Polymer nanocomposite coatings. Adv Polym Nanocomposites Types Appl:605–638.  https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857096241.3.605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hussain CM (2018) Handbook of nanomaterials for industrial applications. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  35. Jayakumar R, Prabaharan M, Sudheesh Kumar PT, Nair SV, Tumara H (2011) Biomaterials based on chitin and chitosan in wound dressing applications. Biotechnol Adv 29:322–337.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.01.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kanmani P, Rhim JW (2014) Physical, mechanical and antimicrobial properties of gelatin based active nanocomposite films containing AgNPs and nanoclay. Food Hydrocoll 35:644–652.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2013.08.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Koo JH (2006) Polymer nanocomposites: processing, characterization and applications. McGraw- Hill, New York. ISBN 9780071458214Google Scholar
  38. Kumar A, Sharma G, Naushad M, Singh P, Kalia S (2014) Polyacrylamide/Ni0.02Zn0.98O nanocomposite with high solar light photocatalytic activity and efficient adsorption capacity for toxic dye removal. Ind Eng Chem Res 53:15549–15560.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ie5018173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kumar S, Krishna Kumar B, AJFN S, Koh J (2019) Bio-based (chitosan/PVA/ZnO) nanocomposites film: thermally stable and photoluminescence material for removal of organic dye. Carbohydr Polym 205:559–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lampman S (2003) Characterization and failure analysis of plastics. ASM International, p 482. ISBN 0-87170-789-6Google Scholar
  41. Li L, Li W, Yang H, Ma C, Yu J, Yan M, Song X (2014) Sensitive origami dual-analyte electrochemical immunodevice based on polyaniline/Au-paper electrode and multi-labeled 3D graphene sheets. Electrochim Acta 120:102–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2013.12.076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lim C, Shin Y, Jung J, Kim JH, Lee S, Kim DH (2019) Stretchable conductive nanocomposite based on alginate hydrogel and silver nanowires for wearable electronics. APL Mater 7:031502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Liu PZ, Hu XW, Mao CJ, Niu HL, Song JM, Jin BK, Zhang SY (2013) Electrochemiluminescence immunosensor based on graphene oxide nanosheets/polyaniline nanowires/CdSe quantum dots nanocomposites for ultrasensitive determination of human interleukin-6. Electrochim Acta 113:176–180.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2013.09.074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Luna-Martínez JF, Hernández-Uresti DB, Reyes-Melo ME, Guerrero-Salazar CA, González-González VA, Sepúlveda-Guzmán S (2011) Synthesis and optical characterization of ZnS–sodium carboxymethyl cellulose nanocomposite films. Carbohydr Polym 84(1):566–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Maron GK, Noremberg BS, Alano JH, Pereira FR, Deon VG, Santos RCR et al (2017) Carbon fiber/epoxy composites: effect of zinc sulphide coated carbon nanotube on thermal and mechanical properties. Polym Bull 75:1619–1633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Miao C, Hamad WY (2013) Cellulose reinforced polymer composites and nanocomposites: a critical review. Cellulose 20(5). ISSN 0969-0239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Miao J, Xie A, Li S, Huang F, Cao J, Shen Y (2016) A novel reducing graphene/polyaniline/cuprous oxide composite hydrogel with unexpected photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Congo red. Appl Surf Sci 360:594–600.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.11.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Miodek A, Castillo G, Hianik T, Korri-Youssoufi H (2014) Electrochemical aptasensor of cellular prion protein based on modified polypyrrole with redox dendrimers. Biosens Bioelectron 56:104–111.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2013.12.051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Montaser AS, Wassel AR, Al-Shaye'a ON (2019) Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of Schiff bases from chitosan and salicylaldehyde/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane. Int J Biol Macromol 124:802–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mouritz AP, Gibson AG (2006) Fire properties of polymer composite materials, vol 143. Springer Netherlands, p 401. ISBN 978-1-4020-5356-6Google Scholar
  51. Nguyen BH, Tran LD, Do QP, Nguyen HL, Tran NH, Nguyen PX (2013) Label-free detection of aflatoxin M1 with electrochemical. Mater Sci Eng C 33:2229–2234.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2013.01.044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pal K, Bag S, Pal S (2008) Development of porous ultra high molecular weight polyethylene scaffolds for the fabrication of orbital implant. J Porous Mater 15:53–59.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10934-006-9051-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pandey N, Shukla SK, Singh NB (2017) Water purification by polymer nanocomposites: an overview. Nano:1–20.  https://doi.org/10.1080/20550324.2017.1329983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Parameswaranpillai J, Hameed N, Kurian T, Yu Y (2016) Nanocomposite materials: synthesis, properties and applications. Taylor and Francis, p 336. ISBN 9781482258189Google Scholar
  55. Pathania D, Gupta D, Al-Muhtaseb AH, Sharma G, Kumar A, Naushad M, Ahmad T, Alshehric SM (2016) Photocatalytic degradation of highly toxic dyes using chitosan-g-poly(acrylamide)/ZnS in presence of solar irradiation. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 329:61–68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2016.06.019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pérez-Díaz M, Alvarado-Gomez E, Magaña-Aquino M, Sánchez-Sánchez R, Velasquillo C, Gonzalez C, Ganem-Rondero A, Martínez-Castañon G, Zavala-Alonso N, Martinez-Gutierrez F (2016) Anti-biofilm activity of chitosan gels formulated with silver nanoparticles and their cytotoxic effect on human fibroblasts. Mater Sci Eng C 60:317–323.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2015.11.036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Potts JR, Dreyer DR, Bielawski CW, Ruoff RS (2011) Graphene-based polymer nanocomposites. Polymer 52:5–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/J.POLYMER.2010.11.042CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pourjavadi A, Nazari M, Hosseini SH (2015) Synthesis of magnetic graphene oxide-containing nanocomposite hydrogels for adsorption of crystal violet from aqueous solution. RSC Adv 5:32263–32271.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c4ra17103aCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Priya KBS, Shanker U, Gupta B, Bhatia JK (2018) RSM-CCD optimized In-air synthesis of photocatalytic nanocomposite: application in removal-degradation of toxic brilliant blue. React Funct Polym 131:107–122.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reactfunctpolym.2018.07.016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Priya KBS, Shanker U, Gupta B (2019) One-pot green synthesis of polymeric nanocomposite: biodegradation studies and application in sorption-degradation of organic pollutants. J Environ Manag 234:345–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Regiel-Futyra A, Kus-Liśkiewicz M, Sebastian V, Irusta S, Arruebo M, Stochel G, Kyziol A (2015) Development of noncytotoxic chitosan–gold nanocomposites as efficient antibacterial materials. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:1087–1099.  https://doi.org/10.1021/am508094eCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rhim JW, Wang LF, Hong SI (2013) Preparation and characterization of agar/silver nanoparticles composite films with antimicrobial activity. Food Hydrocoll 33:327–335.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2013.04.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Roy A, Joshi M, Butola BS (2019) Preparation and antimicrobial assessment of zinc-montmorillonite intercalates based HDPE nanocomposites: a cost-effective and safe bioactive plastic. J Clean Prod 212:1518–1525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ruiyi L, Qianfang X, Zaijun L, Xiulan S, Junkang L (2013) Electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of microcystin-LR based on graphene-gold nanocomposite/functional conducting polymer/gold nanoparticle/ionic liquid composite film with electrodeposition. Biosens Bioelectron 44:235–240.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2013.01.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shankar S, Rhim JW (2016) Polymer nanocomposites for food packaging applications. Funct Phys Prop Polym Nanocomposites:29–55.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118542316.ch3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Shankar S, Reddy JP, Rhim JW, Kim HY (2015) Preparation, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of chitin nanofibrils reinforced carrageenan nanocomposite films. Carbohydr Polym 117:468–475.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.10.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sharma AK, Kaith BS, Gupta B, Shanker U, Lochab SP (2018a) A facile strategy to synthesize a novel and green nanocomposite based on gum Salai guggal – investigation of antimicrobial activity. Mater Chem Phys 219:129–141.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2018.08.024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sharma AK, Kaith BS, Gupta B, Shanker U, Lochab SP (2018b) Microwave assisted in situ synthesis of gum Salai guggal based silver nanocomposites- investigation of anti-bacterial properties. Cellulose.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-018-2140-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sharma AK, Priya KBS, Bajaj S, Bhatia JK, Panchal S, Sharma N, Tanwar V (2019a) Efficient capture of eosin yellow and crystal violet with high performance xanthan-acacia hybrid super-adsorbent optimized using response surface methodology. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 175:314–323.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.12.017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sharma AK, Priya KBS, Panchal S, Bhatia JK, Bajaj S, Tanwar V, Sharma N (2019b) Response surface methodology directed synthesis of luminescent nanocomposite hydrogel for trapping anionic dyes. J Environ Manag 231:380–390.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.10.038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sharma AK, Priya KBS, Sharma N, Bhatia JK, Tanwar V, Panchal S, Bajaj S (2019c) Selective removal of cationic dyes using response surface methodology optimized gum acacia-sodium alginate blended superadsorbent. Int J Biol Macromol 124:331–345.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.11.213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sharma AK, Priya KBS, Tanwar V, Bhatia JK, Sharma N, Bajaj S, Panchal S (2019d) RSM-CCD optimized sodium alginate/gelatin based ZnS-nanocomposite hydrogel for the effective removal of biebrich scarlet and crystal violet dyes. Int J Biol Macromol 129:214–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shen S, Henry A, Tong J, Zheng R, Chen G (2010) Polyethylene nanofibres with very high thermal conductivities. Nat Nanotechnol 5(4):251–255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Song F, Li X, Wang Q, Liao L, Zhang C (2015) Nanocomposite hydrogels and their applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering. J Biomed Nanotechnol 11:40–52.  https://doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2015.1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Srivastava R, Tiwari DK, Dutta PK (2011) 4-(Ethoxycarbonyl) phenyl-1-amino-oxobutanoic acid-chitosan complex as a new matrix for silver nanocomposite film: preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity. Int J Biol Macromol 49:863–870.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2011.07.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sudheesh Kumar PT, Lakshmanan VK, Anilkumar TV, Ramya C, Reshmi P, Unnikrishnan AG, Nair SV, Jayakumar R (2012) Flexible and microporous chitosan hydrogel/nano ZnO composite bandages for wound dressing: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 4:2618–2629.  https://doi.org/10.1021/am300292vCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Tanahashi M (2010) Development of fabrication methods of filler/polymer nanocomposites: with focus on simple melt-compounding-based approach without surface modification of Nanofillers. Materials 3(3):1593–1619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Thomas M, Naikoo GA, Sheikh MUD, Bano M, Khan F (2016) Effective photocatalytic degradation of Congo red dye using alginate/carboxymethyl cellulose/TiO2nanocomposite hydrogel under direct sunlight irradiation. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 327:33–43.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2016.05.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tong Y, Xu J, Jiang H et al (2017) One-step synthesis of novel Cu@polymer nanocomposites through a self-activated route and their application as nonenzymatic glucose sensors. Dalt Trans 46:9918–9924.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c7dt01931aCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Wahab R, Mishra A, Yun S, Hwang I, Mussarat J, Al-Khedhairy AA, Kim YS, Shin HS (2012) Fabrication, growth mechanism and antibacterial activity of ZnO micro-spheres prepared via solution process. Biomass Bioenergy 39:227–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.01.005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wang Y, Herron N (1991) Nanometer-sized semiconductor clusters: materials synthesis, quantum size effects, and photophysical properties. J Phys Chem 95:525–532.  https://doi.org/10.1021/j100155a009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wang DY, Leuteritz A, Wang YZ, Wagenknecht U, Heinrich G (2010) Preparation and burning behaviors of flame retarding biodegradable poly(lactic acid) nanocomposite based on zinc aluminum layered double hydroxide. Polym Degrad Stab 95(12):2474–2480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wang Q, Zhang Y, Hu T, Meng C (2019) Fe3O4 nanoparticles/polymer immobilized on silicate platelets for crude oil recovery. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 278:185–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Youssef AM, El-Naggar ME, Malhat FM, El Sharkawi HM (2019) Efficient removal of pesticides and heavy metals from wastewater and the antimicrobial activity of f-MWCNTs/PVA nanocomposite film. J Clean Prod 206:315–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zhai D, Liu B, Shi Y, Pan L, Wang Y, Li W, Zhang R, Yu G (2013) Highly sensitive glucose sensor based on pt nanoparticle/polyaniline hydrogel heterostructures. ACS Nano 7:3540–3546.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nn400482dCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhai M, Xu Y, Zhou B, Jing W (2018) Keratin-chitosan/n-ZnO nanocomposite hydrogel for antimicrobial treatment of burn wound healing: characterization and biomedical application. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 180:253–258.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2018.02.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zhang N, Lock J, Sallee A, Liu H (2015) Magnetic nanocomposite hydrogel for potential cartilage tissue engineering: synthesis, characterization, and cytocompatibility with bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:20987–20998.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.5b06939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zhang S, Chen S, Yang F, Hu F, Yan B, Gu Y, Jiang H, Cao Y, Xiang M (2019) High-performance electrochromic device based on novel polyaniline nanofibers wrapped antimony-doped tin oxide/TiO2 nanorods. Org Electron 65:341–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Zhao Y, Zhou Y, Wu X, Wang L, Xu L, Wei S (2012) A facile method for electrospinning of Ag nanoparticles/poly (vinyl alcohol)/carboxymethyl-chitosan nanofibers. Appl Surf Sci 258:8867–8873.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2012.05.106CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryDr B R Ambedkar National Institute of TechnologyJalandhar -144011 (Punjab)India

Personalised recommendations