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Effect of Mechanical Alloying in Polymer-Ceramics Composites

  • M. V. KhumaloEmail author
  • M. C. Khoathane
Living reference work entry

Abstract

The chapter presents polymer-ceramics composites using mechanical alloying (MA). Ceramics are classified as inorganic and nonmetallic materials that are essential to our daily lifestyle. Many ceramics, both oxides and non-oxides, are currently produced from polymer precursors. Ceramics generally has an amorphous or a nanocrystalline structure and has excellent structural stability, oxidation resistance, creep resistance, high-temperature mechanical properties, and good dielectric properties. Nevertheless, they have a fundamental weakness in that they are easily fractured and require high-temperature processes for the fabrication of integrated substrates. Composites are now one of the most important classes of engineered materials, because they offer several outstanding properties as compared to conventional materials. Composites are a fast-developing segment of the polymer industry; composites filled with materials having at least one dimension in the micro- and nanometer-size range such as nanofillers, nanoclays, or nanotubes and ceramics represent a step change in technology in the composite area. MA is a solid-state powder processing technique involving repeated welding, fracturing, and rewelding of powder particles in a high-energy ball mill. This technique was originally developed to produce oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) nickel- and iron-based superalloys for aerospace applications. MA has been substantiated to be capable of synthesizing a variety of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases, including nanocrystalline and amorphous materials. Recently MA has been demonstrated to be the most versatile and economical process for the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials, due to its simplicity, low cost, and ability to produce large amount of material. The chapter focuses on the preparation processes; general microstructures; mechanical, chemical, electrical, and optical properties; and potential applications.

Keywords

Ceramics Alumina Polymer composites Polymer nanocomposites Mechanical alloying Composites Nanocomposites Clays High-energy ball milling 

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Polymer Technology DivisionTshwane University of TechnologyPretoriaSouth Africa

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