Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics

Living Edition
| Editors: Harsh K. Gupta

Geodetic Pendulums, Horizontal Ultra Broad Band

  • Carla BraitenbergEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-10475-7_231-1



The ultra broad band horizontal geodetic pendulum is a device designed to measure the earth crustal movement in the range of periods typical of secular movements to seismic deformations. It measures the variation of the plumb line (vertical) with respect to the direction of two earth-fixed reference points (Zadro and Braitenberg 1999).

Instrument Description

The vertical pendulum is made of a mass suspended by a rod or wire that can oscillate in the vertical plane about a horizontal axis. For small amplitudes the oscillation period T depends on the moment of inertia K, the distance s of the center of mass from the rotation axis, the mass m, and the gravity acceleration g following the equation \( {T}^2=\frac{4{\pi}^2K}{\mathrm{mgs}} \)
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Links to Geodynamic Observatories with Active Tiltmeters

  1. LSBB – Low Noise Underground Laboratory, Rustrel, France.: http://lsbb.eu/recherche/onde-environnement-radiatif/interferometrie-laser-inclinometrie/
  2. Plate Boundary Project, Earthscope, USA., https://www.unavco.org/projects/past-projects/pbo/pbo.html
  3. St. Croix long-base tiltmeters, France.: http://igets.u-strasbg.fr/stecroix.php
  4. University California San Diego, USA.: http://pfostrain.ucsd.edu
  5. USGS volcano monitoring with tiltmeters, USA.: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/activity/methods/deformation/tilt/index.php

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mathematics and GeosciencesUniversity of TriesteTriesteItaly