Advertisement

Bioactive Compounds of Drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam.)

  • Balkrishna A. Shinde
  • Avinash C. KambleEmail author
Living reference work entry
  • 14 Downloads
Part of the Reference Series in Phytochemistry book series (RSP)

Abstract

Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a highly valuable medicinal plant due to its nutritional and pharmaceutical properties. Being an Indian native plant, it is generally grown in the Indian subcontinent and Africa regions. All the plant parts have different bioactive chemical compounds such as phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, saponins, alkaloids, glucosinolates, vitamins, and carotenoids. Leaves and pods of this plant are used as vegetables all over India and in other growing countries. Apart from the nutritional values, these plant parts are rich sources of bioactive compounds which are having numerous nutritional and pharmacological potentials. Though the plant is having many applicable values for human benefits, the plant is underused and not much studied in details. Considering the nutritional, medicinal, and socio-ecological aspect of the Moringa, more attention in terms of research point of view is needed.

Keywords

Antioxidant Bioactive compounds Moringa Nutrition 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author BS thank to UGC New Delhi for Dr. D. S. Kothari fellowship award

References

  1. 1.
    Mahmood KT, Mugal T, Haq IU (2010) Moringa oleifera: a natural gift- A review. J Pharm Sci Res 2:775–781Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Koul B, Chase N (2015) Moringa oleifera Lam.: Panacea to several maladies. J Chem Pharm Res 7(6):687–707Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saucedo-Pompa S, Torres-Castilloc JA, Castro-Lópeza RR, Sánchez-Alejoa EJ, Ngangyo-Heyad M, GCG M-Á (2018) Moringa plants: bioactive compounds and promising applications in food products. Food Res Int 111:438–450CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tian Y, Zeng Y, Zhang J, Yang CG, Yan L, Wang XJ, Shi CY, Xie J, Dai TY, Peng L et al (2015) High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera lam.), a potential perennial crop. Sci China Life Sci 58:627–638CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mendioro MS, Diaz MGQ, Alcantara MTB, Hilario OJ et al (2004) Cytological studies of selected medicinal plants: Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotz., Moringa oleifera Lam., Catharanthus roseus (L.) Don. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. Philipp. J Sci 134:31–38Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leone A, Spada A, Battezzati A, Schiraldi A, Aristil J, Bertoli S (2015) Cultivation, genetic, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Moringa oleifera leaves: an overview. Int J Mol Sci 16:12791–12835.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms160612791CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nouman W, Basra SMA, Siddiqui MT, Yasmeen A, Gull T, Alcayde MAC (2014) Potential of Moringa oleifera Lam. as livestock fodder crop: a review. Turk J Agric For 38:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mgendi MG, Nyomora AM, Manoko MK (2011) Using morphological markers to assess variations between and within cultivated and non-cultivated provenances of Moringa oleifera Lam. in Tanzania. J Life Sci 5:387–392Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Raja S, Bagle BG, More TA (2013) Drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lamk.) improvement for semiarid and arid ecosystem: analysis of environmental stability for yield. J Plant Breed Crop Sci 5:164–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kumar AR, Prabhu M, Ponnuswami V, Lakshmanan V, Nithyadevi A (2014) Scientific seed production techniques in moringa. Agric Rev 35:69–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rajangam J, AzahakiaManavalan RS, Thangaraj T, Vijayakumar A, Muthukrishan N (2001) Status of production and utilisation of Moringa in Southern India. In: Proceedings of the international conference on development potential for Moringa products, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Asare GA, Gyan B, Bugyei K, Adjei S, Mahama R, Addo P (2012) Toxicity potentials of the nutraceutical Moringa oleifera at supra-supplementation levels. J Ethnopharmacol 139:265–272.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.11.009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Anwar F, Latif S, Ashraf M, Gilani AH (2007) Moringa oleifera: a food plant with multiplemedicinal uses. Phytother Res 21:17–25CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Stohs SJ, Hartman MJ (2015) Review of the safety and efficacy of Moringa oleifera. Phytother Res PTR 29:796–804.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5325CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Saini RK, Sivanesan I, Keum YS (2016) Phytochemicals of Moringa oleifera: a review of their nutritional, therapeutic and industrial significance. 3 Biotech 6:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-016-0526-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abd Rani NZ, Khairana Husain K, Kumolosasi E (2018) Moringa genus: a review of phytochemistry and pharmacology. Front Pharmacol 9:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang M, Hettiarachchy SN, Horax R, Kannan A, Praisoody MDA, Muhundan A, Mallangi CR (2011) Phytochemicals, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa, Centella asiatica, Moringa oleifera and Murraya koenigii leaves. J Med Plant Res 5:6672–6680Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Prakash D, Suri S, Upadhyay G, Singh BN (2007) Total phenol, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of some medicinal plants. Int J Food Sci Nutr 58:18–28CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bajpai M, Pande A, Tewari SK, Prakash D (2005) Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants. Int J Food Sci Nutr 56:287–291CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Singh BN, Singh BR, Singh RL, Prakash D, Dhakarey R, Upadhyay G, Singh HB (2009) Oxidative DNA damage protective activity, antioxidant and anti-quorum sensing potentials of Moringa oleifera. Food Chem Toxicol 47:1109–1116CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vongsak B, Sithisarn P, Gritsanapan W (2014) Simultaneous HPLC quantitative analysis of active compounds in leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam. J Chromatogr Sci 52:641–645.  https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmt093CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    El-Alfy TS, Ezzat SM, Hegazy AK, Amer AMM, Kamel GM (2011) Isolation of biologically active constituents from Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (family: Moringaceae) growing in Egypt. Pharmacogn Mag 7:109–115.  https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1296.80667CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mekonnen Y, Drager B (2003) Glucosinolates in Moringa stenopetala. Planta Med 69:380–382.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2003-38881CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tumer TB, Rojas-Silva P, Poulev A, Raskin I, Waterman C (2015) Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera. J Agric Food Chem 63:1505–1513.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf505014nCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nibret E, Wink M (2010) Trypanocidal and antileukaemic effects of the essential oils of Hagenia abyssinica, Leonotis ocymifolia, Moringa stenopetala, and their main individual constituents. Phytomedicine 17:911–920.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2010.02.009CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dehshahri S, Afsharypuor S, Asghari G, Mohagheghzadeh A (2012) Determination of volatile glucosinolate degradation products in seed coat, stem and in vitro cultures of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. Res Pharm Sci 7:51–56PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Maiyo FC, Moodley R, Singh M (2016) Cytotoxicity, antioxidant and apoptosis studies of quercetin-3-O-glucoside and 4-(beta-Dglucopyranosyl-1->4-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanates from Moringa oleifera. Anti Cancer Agents Med Chem 16:648–656.  https://doi.org/10.2174/1871520615666151002110424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sahakitpichan P, Mahidol C, Disadee W, Ruchirawat S, Kanchanapoom T (2011) Unusual glycosides of pyrrole alkaloid and 4′-hydroxyphenylethanamide from leaves of Moringa oleifera. Phytochemistry 72:791–795.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.02.021CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Panda S, Kar A, Sharma P, Sharma A (2013) Cardioprotective potential of N, α-l-rhamnopyranosylvincosamide, an indole alkaloid, isolated from the leaves of Moringa oleifera in isoproterenol induced cardiotoxic rats: in vivo and in vitro studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 23:959–962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sashidara KV, Rosaiah JN, Tyagi E, Shukla R, Raghubir R, Rajendran SM (2009) Rare dipeptide and urea derivatives from roots of Moringa oleifera as potential antiinflammatory and antinociceptive agents. Eur J Med Chem 44:432–436.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2007.12.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Guevara AP, Vargas C, Sakurai H, Fujiwara Y, Hashimoto K, Maoka T (1999) An antitumor promoter from Moringa oleifera Lam. Mutat Res 440:181–188.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1383-5718(99)00025-XCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Das BR, Kurup PA, NarasimhaRao PL (1957) Antibiotic principle from Moringa pterygosperma. VII. Antibacterial activity and chemical structure of compounds related to pterygospermin. Indian J Med Res 45:191–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Murakami A, Kitazono Y, Jiwajinda S, Koshimizu K, Ohigashi H (1998) Niaziminin, a thiocarbamate from the leaves of Moringa oleifera, holds a strict structural requirement for inhibition of tumor-promoter-induced Epstein-Barr virus activation. Planta Med 64:319–323.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-957442CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Abdel-RahmanTahany MA, Hegazy AK, Mohsen Sayed A, Kabiel HF, El-Alfy T, El-Komy SM (2010) Study on combined antimicrobial activity of some biologically active constituents from wild Moringa peregrine Forssk. J Yeast Fungal Res 1:15–24Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Keets J, Abd El Baky HH (2013) Characterization of Egyptian Moringa peregrine seed oil and its bioactivities. Int J Manage Sci Bus Res 2:98–108Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tesemma M, Adane L, Tariku Y, Muleta D, Demise S (2013) Isolation of compounds from acetone extract of root wood of Moringa stenopetala and evaluation of their antibacterial activities. Res J Med Plant 7:32–47.  https://doi.org/10.3923/rjmp.2013.32.47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Safaeian L, Asghari G, Javanmard SH, Heidarinejad A (2015) The effect of hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. on blood pressure and oxidative status in dexamethasone-induced hypertensive rats. Adv Biomed Res 4:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.156681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Manguro LO, Lemmen P (2007) Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves. Nat Prod Res 21:6–68.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14786410601035811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Al-Asmari AK, Albalawi SM, Athar MT, Khan AQ, Al-Shahrani H, Islam M (2015a) Moringa oleifera as an anti-cancer agent against breast and colorectal cancer cell lines. PLoS ONE 10:e0135814.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135814CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chelliah R, Ramakrishna S, Antony U (2017) Nutritional quality of Moringa oleifera for its bioactivity and antibacterial properties. Int Food Res J 24:825–833Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Joshi P, Mehta D (2010) Effect of dehydration on the nutritive value of drumstick leaves. J Metabolomics Syst Biol 1:5–9Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Teixeira EMB, Carvalho MRB, Neves VA, Silva MA, Arantes-Pereira L (2014) Chemical characteristics and fractionation of proteins from Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves. Food Chem 147:1–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Makkar HPS, Becker K (1996) Nutritional value and antinutritional components of whole and ethanol extracted Moringa oleifera leaves. Anim Food Sci Technol 63:211–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Makkar HPS, Becker K (1997) Nutrients and antiquality factors in different morphological parts of the Moringa oleifera tree. J Agric Sci 128:311–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Richter N, Siddhuraju P, Becker K (2003) Evaluation of nutritional quality of moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves as an alternative protein source for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Aquaculture 217:599–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ferreira PMP, Farias DF, Oliveira JTDA, Carvalho ADFU (2008) Moringa oleifera: bioactive compounds and nutritional potential. Rev Nutr 21:431–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Price ML (1985) The moringa tree. In: ECHO technical note. ECHO, MyersGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Girija V, Sharada D, Pushpamma P (1982) Bioavailability of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin from commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in the rural areas of Andhra Pradesh in India. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 52:9–13PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Iqbal S, Bhanger MI (2006) Effect of season and production location on antioxidant activity of Moringa oleifera leaves grown in Pakistan. J Food Compos Anal 19:544–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Siddhuraju P, Becker K (2003) Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. J Agric Food Chem 51:2144–2155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sanchez-Machado DI, Lopez-Cervantes J, Vázquez NJR (2006) High-performance liquid chromatography method to measure α-and γ-tocopherol in leaves, flowers and fresh beans from Moringa oleifera. J Chromatogr A 1105:111–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Moyo B, Masika PJ, Hugo A, Muchenje V (2011) Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. Afr J Biotechnol 10:12925–12933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shanker K, Gupta MM, Srivastava SK, Bawankule DU, Pal A, Khanuja SPS (2007) Determination of bioactive nitrile glycoside(s) in drumstick (Moringa oleifera) by reverse phase HPLC. Food Chem 105:376–382.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.12.034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    El-Haddad AE, Koheil MA, El-Khalik SMA, Osman S (2002) “Antihyperglycemic activity and nitrile glycosides of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) seeds,” in Fourth Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Natural Products and Drug Discovery: Back to Mother Nature (Cairo/Sharm El-Sheikh: BioNat-IV)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Memon GM, Memon SA, Memon AR (1985) Isolation and structure elucidation of moringyne – a new glycoside from seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. Pak J Sci Ind Res 28:7–9Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ogunbino AO, Flamini G, Cioni PL, Adebayo MA, Oguwande IA (2009) Constituents of Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., Moringa oleifera Lam., Heliotropium indicum L. and Bidens pilosa L. from Nigeria. Nat Prod Commun 4:573–578Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bekele B, Adane L, Tariku Y, Hailu A (2013) Evaluation of antileishmanial activities of triglycerides isolated from roots of Moringa stenopetala. Med Chem Res 22:4592–4599.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00044-013-0467-xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Atawodi SE, Atawodi JC, Idakwo GA, Pfundstein B, Haubner R, Wurtele G, Bartsch H, Owen RW (2010) Evaluation of the polyphenol content and antioxidant properties of methanol extracts of the leaves, stem, and root barks of Moringa oleifera Lam. J Med Food 13:710–716CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Muhammad AA, Arulselvan P, Cheah PS, Abas F, Fakurazi S (2016) Evaluation of wound healing properties of bioactive aqueous fraction from Moringa oleifera Lam on experimentally induced diabetic animal model. Drug Des Devel Ther 10:1715–1730.  https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S96968CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wang L, Chen X, Wu A (2016) Mini review on antimicrobial activity and bioactive compounds of Moringa oleifera. Med Chem 6:578–582Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Arrieta EC, Valdez B, Carrillo M, Curiel MA, Mateos FD, Ramos RA, Rosas N, Bastidas JM (2017) Silver nanoparticles biosynthesized by secondary metabolites from Moringa oleifera stem and their antimicrobial properties. Afr J Biotechnol 16:400–407.  https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB2016.15840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Karthivashan G, Fard MT, Arulselvan P, Abas F, Fakurazi S (2013) Identification of bioactive candidate compounds responsible for oxidative challenge from hydro-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. J Food Chem 78:1368–1375.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fitri A, Toharmatb T, Astuti DA, Tamura H (2013) The potential use of secondary metabolites in Moringa oleifera as an antioxidant source. Media Peternakan 38:169–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Costa RA, Viana de Sousa O, Hofer E, JairMafezoli EJ, Barbosa FG, Vieira RHSF (2017) Thiocarbamates from Moringa oleifera seeds bioactive against virulent and multidrug-resistant vibrio species. Biomed Res Int 2017:1–6Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gopinath LR, Jeevitha S, Gokiladevi T, Archaya S (2017) Isolation and identification of therapeutic compounds from Moringa oleifera and its antimicrobial activity. IOSR J Pharm Bio Sci 12:1–7Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Khatun S, Khan MMH, Ashraduzzaman M, Pervin F, Bari L, Absar N (2009) Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of three lectins purified from drumstick (Moringa oleifera lam.) leaves. J Biosci 17:89–94Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Nuryanti S, Puspitasari DJ (2017) Screening of metabolites secondary compounds in extract of moringa fruit and determination of inhibitory effect on growth of the fungus Candida albicans. AIP Conf Proc 1868, 020006:1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4995092
  68. 68.
    Vergara-Jimenez M, Almatrafi MM, Fernandez ML (2017) Bioactive components in Moringa oleifera leaves protect against chronic disease. Antioxidants 6:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox6040091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Metwally FM, Rashad HM, Ahmed HH, Mahmoud AA, AbdolRaouf ER, Abdalla AM (2017) Molecular mechanisms of the anti-obesity potential effect of Moringa oleifera in the experimental model. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 7:214–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fard MT, Arulselvan P, Karthivashan G, Adam SK, Fakurazi S (2015) Bioactive extract from Moringa oleifera inhibits the pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophages. Pharmacogn Mag 11:556–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Singha R (2010) Advantages of moringa oil. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/moringa oil.html. Accessed 30 Dec 2010
  72. 72.
    Parrotta JA (2001) Healing plants of peninsular India. CABL Publishing, Wallingford/New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanySavitribai Phule Pune UniversityPuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiotechnologyShivaji UniversityKolhapurIndia

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vishwas A. Bapat
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyShivaji UniversityKolhapurIndia

Personalised recommendations