Advertisement

Qualitative Approaches to Classroom Research on English-Medium Instruction

  • Sandra Zappa-HollmanEmail author
  • Patricia A. Duff
Reference work entry
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of recent qualitative research in classrooms examining language learning and use in educational contexts where English is a medium of instruction (EMI). After describing the typical features of qualitative research, we identify the kinds of issues that are best addressed through the collection and analysis of qualitative data and provide a list of key principles to guide the design of a qualitative study. We also discuss some of the caveats or challenges to keep in mind, particularly for classroom-based research projects. Three exemplary classroom-based EMI studies are then presented to illustrate how qualitative research has been used in recent research. Using discourse analysis of classroom interaction and other methods, the studies offer insightful contributions to our understanding of the types of tasks, pedagogical approaches, or interactions (between peers or between students and teachers) that are conducive to language development. The chapter concludes with directions for future research.

Keywords

English-medium instruction (EMI) Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) Classroom research Qualitative research Qualitative classroom research Research paradigms Triangulation Classroom interaction 

References

  1. Baker AA, Lee JJ (2011) Mind the gap: unexpected pitfalls doing classroom research. Qual Rep 4(5):1435–1447Google Scholar
  2. Bovellan E (2014) Teachers’ beliefs about learning and language as reflected in their views of teaching materials for content and language integrated learning (CLIL). Doctoral thesis, University of Jyväskylä, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  3. Cammarata L, Tedick D (2012) Balancing content and language in instruction: the experience of immersion teachers. Mod Lang J 96:251–269.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2012.01330.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chaudron C (1988) Second language classrooms: research on teaching and learning. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Coffin C (2006) Learning the language of school history: the role of linguistics in mapping the writing demands of the secondary school curriculum. J Curric Stud 38:413–429.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00220270500508810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cohen L, Manion L, Morrison K (2018) Research methods in education, 8th edn. Routledge, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Creswell JW, Creswell JD (2017) Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches, 5th edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  8. Cummins J (2015) Evidence-based TESOL: teaching through a multilingual lens. Keynote speech presented at the TESOL conference, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  9. Dalton-Puffer C (2011) Content-and-language integrated learning: from practice to principles? Ann Rev Appl Linguis 31:182–204.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190511000092CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dalton-Puffer C, Smit U (2013) Content and language integrated learning: a research agenda. Lang Teach 46:545–559.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444813000256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Costa P (ed) (2016) Ethics in applied linguistics research. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Denzin N, Lincoln Y (eds) (2018) The Sage handbook of qualitative research, 5th edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  13. Douglas Fir Group (2016) A transdisciplinary framework for SLA in a multilingual world. Mod Lang J 100-S:19–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duff PA (2002) The discursive co-construction of knowledge, identity, and difference: an ethnography of communication in the high school mainstream. Appl Linguis 23:289–322.  https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/23.3.289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Duff PA (2007) Qualitative approaches to classroom research with English language learners. In: Cummins J, Davison C (eds) International handbook of English language teaching. Springer, Boston, pp 973–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duff PA (2019) Monolingual versus multilingual language use in language classrooms: contested and mediated social and linguistic practice. In: Haneda M, Nassaji H (eds) Perspectives on language as action: essays in honour of Merrill Swain. Multilingual Matters, BristolGoogle Scholar
  17. Duff PA, Abdi K (2016) In: De Costa P (ed) Ethics in applied linguistics research: language researcher narratives. Routledge, New York, pp 121–141Google Scholar
  18. Ellis R (2012) Language teaching research and language pedagogy. Wiley, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. García O (2009) Bilingual education in the 21st century: a global perspective. Wiley-Blackwell, MaldenGoogle Scholar
  20. García O, Li W (2015) Translanguaging, bilingualism, and bilingual education. In: Wright WE, Boun S, García O (eds) The handbook of bilingual and multilingual education, 1st edn. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  21. Harbon L, Shen H (2015) Researching language classrooms. In: Paltridge B, Phakiti A (eds) Research methods in applied linguistics: a practical resource. Bloomsbury, London/New York, pp 457–470Google Scholar
  22. Kobayashi M, Zappa-Hollman S, Duff P (2017) Academic discourse socialization. In: Duff P, May S (eds) Language socialization. Encyclopedia of language & education. Springer, Cham, pp 239–253Google Scholar
  23. Lemke J (2016) Translanguaging and flows (Unpublished manuscript). Department of Communication, University of California, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  24. Lightbown PM (2000) Classroom SLA research and second language teaching. Appl Linguis 21(4):431–462.  https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/21.4.431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lin AMY (2015) Egalitarian bi/multilingualism and trans-semiotising in a global world. In: Wright WE, Boun S, García O (eds) Handbook of bilingual and multilingual education. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, pp 19–37Google Scholar
  26. Lin AMY, He P (2017) Translanguaging as dynamic activity flows in CLIL classrooms. J Lang Identity Educ 16(4):228–244.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15348458.2017.1328283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Llinares A, Morton T, Whittaker R (2012) The roles of language in CLIL. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  28. Lo YY, Macaro E (2012) The medium of instruction and classroom interaction: evidence from Hong Kong secondary schools. Int J Biling Educ Biling 15(1):29–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lo YY, Macaro E (2015) Getting used to content and language integrated learning: what can classroom interaction reveal? Lang Learn J 43(3):239–255.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2015.1053281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Long MH (1983) Native speaker/non-native speaker conversation and the negotiation of comprehensible input. Appl Linguis 4(2):126–141.  https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/4.2.126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lukenchuk A (2013) Paradigms of research for the 21st century. Peter Lang, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. McKay S (2006) Researching second language classrooms. Lawrence Erlbaum, MahwahCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Merriam SB, Tisdell EJ (2015) Qualitative research: a guide to design and implementation, 4th edn. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  34. Moore P, Nikula T (2016) Translanguaging in CLIL classrooms. In: Nikula T, Dafouz E, Moore P, Smit T (eds) Conceptualizing integration in CLIL and multilingual education. Multilingual Matters, Bristol, pp 211–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mortimer EF, Scott PH (2003) Meaning making in secondary science classrooms. Open University Press, MaidenheadGoogle Scholar
  36. Nikula T (2007) The IRF pattern and space for interaction: comparing CLIL and EFL classrooms. In: Dalton-Puffer C, Smit U (eds) Empirical perspectives on CLIL classroom discourse. Peter Lang, Frankfurt, pp 179–204Google Scholar
  37. Nikula T (2010) Effects of CLIL on a teacher’s classroom language use. In: Dalton-Puffer C, Nikula T, Smit U (eds) Language use and language learning in CLIL classrooms. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp 105–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nikula T (2012) On the role of peer discussions in the learning of subject-specific language use in CLIL. In: Alcon E, Safont MP (eds) Discourse and language learning across L2 instructional contexts. Rodopi, Amsterdam, pp 133–153Google Scholar
  39. Nikula T (2015) Hands-on tasks in CLIL science classrooms as sites for subject-specific language use and learning. System 54:14–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2015.04.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Nunan D (2005) Classroom research. In: Hinkel E (ed) Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, pp 225–240Google Scholar
  41. Nunan D, Bailey K (2009) Exploring second language classroom research: a comprehensive guide. Heinle, BostonGoogle Scholar
  42. Paltridge B, Phakiti A (2015) Research methods in applied linguistics: A practical resource, 2nd edn. Bloomsbury Academic, LondonGoogle Scholar
  43. Riazi AM (2017) Mixed methods research in language teaching and learning. Equinox, SheffieldGoogle Scholar
  44. Rossman GB, Rallis SF (2011) Learning in the field: an introduction to qualitative research, 2nd edn. Sage, Thousand OaksGoogle Scholar
  45. Saville-Troike M (2003) The ethnography of communication: an introduction, 3rd edn. Blackwell, MaldenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schleppegrell M (2004) The language of schooling. A functional linguistics perspective. Lawrence Erlbaum, MahwahCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Seedhouse P (1999) Task-based interaction. ELT J 53:149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Silverman D (ed) (2016) Qualitative research. Sage, London/New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Snell J, Shaw S, Copland F (eds) (2016) Linguistic ethnography: interdisciplinary explorations. Palgrave Macmillan, BasingstokeGoogle Scholar
  50. Swain M (1995) Three functions of output in second language learning. In: Cook G, Seidlhofer B (eds) Principles and practice in applied linguistics: studies in honour of H. G. Widdowson. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 125–144Google Scholar
  51. Talmy S (2010) Qualitative interviews in applied linguistics: from research instrument to social practice. Ann Rev Appl Linguis 30:128–148.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0267190510000085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tsui ABM (1985) Analysing input and interaction in second language classrooms. RELC J 16(1):8–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ur P (2014) Practice and research-based theory in English teacher development. Eur J Appl Linguis TEFL 3(2):143–155Google Scholar
  54. van Lier L (1988) The classroom and the language learner: ethnography and second-language classroom research. Longman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Zappa-Hollman S, Duff P (2017) Conducting research on content-based language instruction. In: Snow MA, Brinton D (eds) The content-based classroom: perspectives on integrating language and content, 2nd edn. University of Michigan Press, Michigan, pp 309–321Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Language and Literacy EducationUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations