Advertisement

English Language Teaching in North American Schools

  • Jim CumminsEmail author
  • Mario E. López-Gopar
  • William M. Sughrua
Reference work entry
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)

Abstract

The chapter focuses on the intersection of research and (K-12) educational policies in English language teaching (ELT) in Mexico, the United States, and Canada. Initially, current provision for ELT in public schools in these three contexts is summarized. Then six thematic lenses are identified through which current ELT provision and experience in these three contexts can be viewed. These thematic lenses are (1) nature, trajectories, and outcomes of ELT; (2) the emergence of content-based approaches to ELT; (3) ELT within bilingual programs; (4) multilingual and translanguaging approaches to ELT; (5) decolonization and identity negotiation in ELT; and (6) literacy engagement as fuel for English academic language development. The final section integrates these themes and the research evidence underlying them with broader policy directions for evidence-based ELT in North American schools.

Keywords

Bilingual instructional approaches Content-based language teaching Cross-lingual interdependence Decolonization Literacy engagement Socioeconomic status (SES) Transfer across languages Translanguaging 

References

  1. Battiste M (2013) Decolonizing education: nourishing the learning spirit. Purich Publishing, SaskatoonGoogle Scholar
  2. Boykin AW, Noguera P (2011) Creating the opportunity to learn: moving from research to practice to close the achievement gap. ASCD, AlexandriaGoogle Scholar
  3. California State Department of Education (1981) Schooling and language minority students: a theoretical framework. National Dissemination and Assessment Center, Los Angeles.  https://doi.org/10.13140/2.1.1334.9449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Callahan R, Wilkinson L, Muller C (2010) Academic achievement and course taking among language minority youth in U.S. schools: effects of ESL placement. Educ Eval Policy Anal 32(1):84–117.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373709359805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chamot A, O’Malley J (1986) A cognitive academic language learning approach: an ESL content-based curriculum. National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Chow P, Cummins J (2003) Valuing multilingual and multicultural approaches to learning. In: Schecter SR, Cummins J (eds) Multilingual education in practice: using diversity as a resource. Heinemann, Portsmouth, pp 32–61Google Scholar
  7. Christensen G, Segeritz M (2008) An international perspective on student achievement. In: Stiftung B (ed) Immigrant students can succeed: lessons from around the globe. Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, Gütersloh, pp 11–33Google Scholar
  8. Collier VP (1987) Age and rate of acquisition of second language for academic purposes. TESOL Q 21:617–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Collier VP, Thomas WP (2007) Predicting second language academic success in English using the prism model. In: Cummins J, Davison C (eds) International handbook of English language teaching. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, New York, pp 333–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cummins J (1981a) The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In: California State Department of Education (ed) Schooling and language minority students: a theoretical framework. Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University, Los Angeles, pp 3–49Google Scholar
  11. Cummins J (1981b) Age on arrival and immigrant second language learning in Canada: a reassessment. Appl Linguis 2:132–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cummins J (2007) Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms. Can J Appl Linguis 10:221–240Google Scholar
  13. Cummins J (2017) Teaching for transfer in multilingual educational contexts. In: García O, Lin A (eds) Bilingual education: encyclopedia of language and education, 3rd edn. Springer Science + Business Media LLC, New York, pp 103–115Google Scholar
  14. Cummins J, Early M (2011) Identity texts: the collaborative creation of power in multilingual schools. Trentham Books, Stoke-on-TrentGoogle Scholar
  15. Cummins J, Early M (2015) Big ideas for expanding minds: teaching English language learners across the curriculum. Rubicon Press/Pearson Canada, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  16. Cummins J, Hu S, Markus P, Montero MK (2015) Identity texts and academic achievement: connecting the dots in multilingual school contexts. TESOL Q 49(3):555–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Darling-Hammond L (2010) The flat world and education: how America’s commitment to equity will determine our future. Teachers College Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Davies P (2007) La enseñanza del inglés en las escuelas públicas secundarias y primarias en México [The teaching of English in primary and secondary public schools in Mexico]. Mextesol J 31:13–21Google Scholar
  19. DeFazio AJ (1997) Language awareness at the international high school. In: Van Lier L, Corson D (eds) Knowledge about language. Encyclopedia of language and education. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 99–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Derwing TM, DeCorby E, Ichikawa J, Jamieson K (1999) Some factors that affect the success of ESL high school students. Can Mod Lang Rev 55:532–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duke N (2000) For the rich it’s richer: print experiences and environments offered to children in very low and very high-socioeconomic status first-grade classrooms. Am Educ Res J 37:441–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Early M, Hooper H (2001) Implementation of the Vancouver school board initiatives. In: Mohan B, Leung C, Davison C (eds) Teaching, learning, identity. Pearson Education, London, pp 138–150Google Scholar
  23. Echevarria J, Vogt ME, Short D (2004) Making content comprehensible for English language learners: the SIOP model, second edition. Allyn & Bacon, BostonGoogle Scholar
  24. Enciso A (2013) En México, 56% de los niños menores de cinco años viven en la pobreza [In Mexico, 56% of children under five years of age live in poverty]. La Jornada. Retrieved from http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2013/04/ 04/sociedad/040nlsoc
  25. Escamilla K, Hopewell S, Butvilofsky S, Sparrow W, Soltero-Gonzalez, Ruiz-Figueroa O, Escamilla M (2014) Biliteracy from the start: literacy squared in action. Caslon Publishing, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  26. García O (2009) Bilingual education in the 21st century. A global perspective. Basil Blackwell, BostonGoogle Scholar
  27. García O, Kleyn T (eds) (2016) Translanguaging with multilingual students. Routledge, New York/LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. González Amador E (2013) En México la brecha entre ricos y pobres es la más amplia de la OCDE [In Mexico the gap between rich and poor is the widest within the OCDE]. La Jornada. Retrieved from http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2013/05/15/economia/029n2eco
  29. Gunderson L, D’Silva RA, Odo DM (2012) Immigrant students navigating Canadian schools: a longitudinal view. TESL Can J 29(6):142–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hamel RE (1994) Linguistic rights for Amerindian peoples in Latin American. In: Stubnabb-Kangas T, Phillipson R (eds) Linguistic human rights: overcoming linguistic discrimination. Mouton de Gruyter, New York, pp 289–304Google Scholar
  31. Kleyn T (2017) Centering transborder students: perspectives on identity, languaging, and schooling between the U.S. and Mexico. Multicult Perspect 19(2):76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Krashen SD (1981) Second language acquisition and second language learning. Pergamon Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  33. Krashen SD (2004) The power of reading: insights from the research, 2nd edn. Heinemann, PortsmouthGoogle Scholar
  34. Lambert WE, Tucker GR (1972) Bilingual education of children: the St. Lambert experiment. Newbury House, RowleyGoogle Scholar
  35. Lethaby C (2003) Private English/Spanish bilingual education in Mexico: looking at our reality. Mextesol J 26(3):65–73Google Scholar
  36. Lewis G, Jones B, Baker C (2012) Translanguaging: origins and development from school to street and beyond. Educ Res Eval: Int J Theory Pract 18(7):37–41Google Scholar
  37. López Gopar ME, Sughrua W (2014) Social class in English language education in Oaxaca, Mexico. J Lang Identity Educ 13:104–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. López-Gopar ME (2016) Decolonizing primary English language teaching. Multilingual Matters, BristolCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. MacSwan J (2017) A multilingual perspective on translanguaging. Am Educ Res J 54(1):167–201.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831216683935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Márquez Jiménez A (2017) A 15 años de PISA: Resultados y polémicas [15 years of PISA: Results and debates]. Perfiles Educativos XXXIX(156):1–15Google Scholar
  41. McAndrew M, Anisef P, Garnett B, Ledent J, Sweet R (2009) Educational pathways and academic performance of youth of immigrant origin: comparing Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver. Canadian Council on Learning, Ottawa. Retrieved from http://www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/OtherReports/CIC-CCL-Final12aout2009EN.pdfGoogle Scholar
  42. McCarty TL (2008) Bilingual education by and for American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians. In: Cummins J, Hornberger N (eds) Encyclopedia of language and education, vol 5, 2nd edn. Springer Science+Business Media LLC, New York, pp 239–252Google Scholar
  43. Mohan B (1986) Language and content. Addison-Wesley, ReadingGoogle Scholar
  44. National Center for Education Statistics [NCES] (2018) English language learners in public schools. Cond Educ. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cgf.asp
  45. Neuman SB, Celano D (2001) Access to print in low-income and middle-income communities: an ecological study of four neighborhoods. Read Res Q 36:8–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Norton B (2013) Identity and language learning: extending the conversation, 2nd edn. Multilingual Matters, BristolCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. OECD (2004) Messages from PISA 2000. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
  48. OECD (2010a) Strong performers and successful reformers in education: lessons from PISA for the United States. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/32/50/46623978.pdf
  49. OECD (2010b) PISA 2009 results: learning to learn – student engagement, strategies and practices, vol III. OECD, Paris. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/11/17/48852630.pdfCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. OECD (2015) Helping immigrant students succeed at school – and beyond. OECD, Paris. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/education/Helping-immigrant-students-to-succeed-at-school-and-beyond.pdfCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Olivares Alonso E (2013) Sólo 19.3% de la población en el grupo de personas no pobres ni vulnerables [Only19.3% of the population in the group of people neither poor nor vulnerable]. La Jornada. Retrieved from http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2013/03/15/sociedad/045n2soc
  52. Pennycook A (2016) Politics, power relations and ELT. In: Hall G (ed) The Routledge handbook of English language teaching. Routledge, London, pp 26–37Google Scholar
  53. Ramírez Romero JL, Sayer P, Pamplón Irigoyen EN (2014) English language teaching in public primary schools in Mexico: the practices and challenges of implementing a national language education program. Int J Qual Stud Educ 27(8):1020–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ramírez-Romero JL, Sayer P (2016) The teaching of English in public primary schools in Mexico: more heat than light? Educ Policy Anal Arch 24(84):1–21Google Scholar
  55. Reyes Cruz MR, Murrieta Loyo G, Hernández Méndez E (2011) Políticas lingüísticas nacionales e internacionales sobre la enseñanza del ingles en escuelas primarias [National and international language policies on the teaching of English in elementary schools]. Rev Pueblos Front Digit 6(12):167–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sanchez C (2017) English language learners: how your state is doing. National Public Radio Education. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/sections/ed/2017/02/23/512451228/5-million-english-language-learners-a-vast-pool-of-talent-at-risk
  57. Sayer P (2015) ‘More & earlier’: neoliberalism and primary English education in Mexican public schools. L2 J 7(3):40–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sayer P, López-Gopar M (2015) Language education in Mexico: access, equity, and ideology. In: Wright WE, Boun S, García O (eds) The handbook of bilingual and multilingual education. Wiley-Blackwell, Malden, pp 578–591Google Scholar
  59. Shin N (2017) The effects of the initial English language learner classification on students’ later academic outcomes. Educ Eval Policy Anal 40(2):175–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stanat P, Christensen G (2006) Where immigrant students succeed: a comparative review of performance and engagement in PISA 2003. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, ParisGoogle Scholar
  61. Terborg R, García Landa L, Moore P (2007) Language planning in Mexico. In: Baldauf R Jr, Kaplan RB (eds) Language planning and policy in Latin America: vol. 1: Ecuador, Mexico and Paraguay. Multilingual Matters, Clevedon, pp 115–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Toohey K, Derwing TM (2008) Hidden losses: how demographics can encourage incorrect assumptions about ESL high school students’ success. Alberta J Educ Res 54(2):178–193Google Scholar
  63. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (2015) Canada’s residential schools: the history, Part 1 Origins to 1939. The final report of the truth and reconciliation commission of Canada, vol 1. Retrieved from http://nctr.ca/assets/reports/Final%20Reports/Volume_1_History_Part_1_English_Web.pdf
  64. Valentino RA, Reardon SF (2015) Effectiveness of four instructional programs designed to serve English learners: variation by ethnicity and initial English proficiency. Educ Eval Policy Anal 37(4):612–637.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373715573310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Volante L, Klinger D, Bilgili Ö, Siegel M (2017) Making sense of the performance (dis)advantage for immigrant students across Canada. Can J Educ/Rev Can l’éducation 40(3):229–361Google Scholar
  66. Walton F, O’Leary D (eds) (2015) SIVUMUT: towards the future together Inuit women educational leaders in Nunavut and Nunavik. Women’s Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  67. Watt DLE, Roessingh H (1994) Some you win, most you lose: tracking ESL student drop out in high school (1988–1993). Engl Q 26(3):5–7Google Scholar
  68. Watt DLE, Roessingh H (2001) The dynamics of ESL dropout: plus ça change …. Can Mod Lang Rev 58:203–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Williams C (1996) Secondary education: teaching in the bilingual situation. In: Williams C, Lewis G, Baker C (eds) The language policy: taking stock. CAI, Llangefni, pp 39–78Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jim Cummins
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mario E. López-Gopar
    • 3
  • William M. Sughrua
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Curriculum, Teaching and LearningUniversity of TorontoTRCanada
  2. 2.Åbo Akademi UniversityTurkuFinland
  3. 3.Universidad Autónoma Benito Juárez de OaxacaOaxacaMexico

Personalised recommendations