Uneven Geographies of Foreign Language Translations, Classes, and Interpreters in Capital and Gateway Cities

  • Stanley D. BrunnEmail author
Reference work entry


Human diversity can be measured using a variety of indicators including genetic background, ethnic heritage, faith-belief communities, and language preferences. Each index or indicator can be mapped to demonstrate where there is little or much diversity within a country or city. Language diversity can be measured using the number and variety of languages that are spoken, read, and taught. That diversity can also be illustrated through materials (books, articles, films, music, art, advertising, videos, etc.) that are translated, the number of languages taught in cities and schools, and the amount of demand for translators in the same settings. The Google search engine provides hyperlinks to electronic data that can help us understand the diversities that exist in a global world of increasing fluidity and speed. When exploring the hyperlink volumes of the six official United Nations languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish), English emerges as the leading language used in translating materials in major fields; however, when considering languages other than those six, German is a leader. French, Spanish, and Italian are also major languages found in materials translated, as are Russian and Chinese. That same diversity is reflected in the density of language interpreters in capital cities and gateway cities.


Translations Books Science Music Film Foreign language diversity World capitals Gateway cities Interpreters 


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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