Advertisement

Mapping Linguistic Vitality and Language Endangerment

  • Maggie Canvin
  • Irene TuckerEmail author
Reference work entry

Abstract

The endangerment and even disappearance of languages, partly due to the effects of globalization and other factors, have been a growing concern for the last 25 years. It is generally accepted that the loss of any language reduces the cultural diversity of the world and affects communities by the loss of cultural identity and traditions. The issue of language vitality is a key element in the discussion of language endangerment. The Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS) was developed to measure language vitality, and languages that are categorized EGIDS levels 6b–8b are considered to be endangered. Ethnologue (http://www.ethnologue.com), in its listing of the world’s languages, now includes the EGIDS level of each language alongside other language-related information.

In this chapter the measurement of language vitality will be discussed, a concept map presented portraying the process of making a language map, and the science, technology and art of making a language map discussed with examples from different areas of the world. Finally, a map of Venezuela highlighting endangered languages and their levels of endangerment will be presented.

Keywords

Endangered languages Language vitality Language map EGIDS Ethnologue 

Notes

Publisher’s note:

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

References

  1. Belew, A. (2012). The catalogue of endangered languages (ELCat): Project overview with focus on Africa. Presented at the 7th world congress of African linguistics (WOCAL 7). Retrieved 17 June 2016, from https://www.academia.edu/2607901/The_Catalogue_of_Endangered_Languages_ELCat_Project_Overview_with_Focus_on_Africa
  2. Brewer, C. A. (2005). Designing better Maps: A guide for GIS users. Redlands: ESRI Press.Google Scholar
  3. Briscoe, U. (2009). Geolinguistic GIS applications: Aspects of data quality in mapping lesser-used languages. MSc thesis, Salzburg University.Google Scholar
  4. Dobrin, L. M., & Berson, J. (2011). Speakers and language documentation. In P. Austin & J. Sallabank (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages (pp. 187–211). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eppele, J. W., Lewis, M. P., Regmi, D. R., & Yadava, Y. P. (Eds.). (2012). Ethnologue: Languages of Nepal. Kathmandu: Central Department Linguistics, Tribhuvan University.Google Scholar
  6. Fishman, J. A. (1990). Reversing language shift. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  7. Grenoble, L. (2015). Language ecology and endangerment. In P. Austin & J. Sallabank (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of endangered languages (pp. 27–44). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Harrison, A. (2003). Fulfulde language family report. Retrieved 17 June 2016, from http://www.sil.org/resources/archives/9065
  9. Keates, J. S. (1973). Cartographic design and production. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  10. Kent, A. (2008). Understanding aesthetics for good map design. Talk given at the British Cartographic Society Conference.Google Scholar
  11. Lewis, M. P., & Simons, G. F. (2010). Assessing endangerment: Expanding Fishman’s GIDS. Revue Roumaine de Linguistique, 55(2), 103–120.Google Scholar
  12. Lewis, M. P., Simons, G. F. & Fennig, C. D. (Eds.). (2013). Ethnologue: Languages of Africa and Europe (17th edition). Dallas, Texas: SIL International, Global Publishing.Google Scholar
  13. Lewis, M. P., Simons, G. F. & Fennig, C. D. (Eds.). (2014). Ethnologue: Languages of the Americas and the Pacific (17th edition). Dallas, Texas: SIL International, Global Publishing.Google Scholar
  14. Lewis, M. P., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (Eds.). (2016a). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (19th ed.). Dallas: SIL International. Retrieved 17 June 2016, from http://www.ethnologue.com.Google Scholar
  15. Lewis, M. P., Simons, G. F., & Fennig, C. D. (Eds.). (2016b). Ethnologue global dataset (19th ed. data). Dallas: SIL International. Retrieved 17 June 2016, from http://www.ethnologue.com/sites/default/files/Ethnologue-19-Global%20Dataset%20Doc.pdf
  16. Quakenbush, J. S., & Simons, G. F. (2012). Looking at Austronesian language vitality through EGIDS and SUM, 12-IKAL Denpasar, Bali, 2–6 July 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2016, from http://slideplayer.com/slide/4693349/
  17. The Royal Society. (1966). Glossary of technical terms in cartography: British National Committee for geography: Cartography subcommittee. London: The Royal Society.Google Scholar
  18. UNESCO. (2016). How do you define an endangered language? FAQ on endangered languages. Retrieved 17 June 2016, from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/endangered-languages/faq-on-endangered-languages/
  19. UNESCO Ad Hoc Expert Group on Endangered Languages. (2003). Language vitality and endangerment. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  20. UNESCO Bangkok. (n.d.). Suwilai mapping & revitalization presentation. Retrieved 17 June 2016, from http://www.unescobkk.org/fileadmin/user_upload/culture/Cultural_Mapping/Suwilai%20Mapping%20&%20Revitalization%20Presentation.pdf
  21. Yagmur, K., & Ehala, M. (2011). Tradition and innovation in the ethnolinguistic vitality theory. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 32(2), 101–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.SIL InternationalDallasUSA
  2. 2.AIM Cartography Information ServicesSIL InternationalDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations