Advertisement

Nonepileptic Paroxysmal Events Occurring During Sleep and Sleep Disorders

  • Aatif M. Husain
Reference work entry

Introduction

Nonepileptic paroxysmal events that occur during sleep can often be confused with epileptic seizures by both patients and physicians. Moreover, some sleep disorders can have symptoms during wakefulness that mimic epileptic seizures. Without correct recognition, patients may be subjected to unnecessary and potentially harmful therapy. This chapter discusses the various sleep disorders that produce paroxysmal events during sleep and wakefulness. Epileptic seizures and syndromes that manifest with predominantly nocturnal seizures will be discussed elsewhere.

There are two main types of sleep, rapid eye movement (REM, R) and non-REM (NREM, N) sleep. NREM sleep is further divided into stages 1, 2, and 3 (N1, N2, N3). Stage N1 consists mainly of transition from wake to sleep, whereas stage N3, also called slow wave sleep, is deep sleep. Thus, sleep consists of four stages: stage N1, stage N2, stage N3, and stage R. These stages occur at regular, cyclic intervals of 90–120 min...

Keywords

Sleep Disorder Periodic Limb Movement Nucleus Magnocellularis Sleep Terror Muscle Atonia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations

CSF

cerebrospinal fluid

ECG

electrocardiogram

EEG

electroencephalography

EMG

electromyogram

HLA

human leukocyte antigen

LDT

laterodorsal tegmental

MSLT

multiple sleep latency test

MWT

multiple wakefulness test

NREM

non-REM

OSA

obstructive sleep apnea

PPT

pedunculopontine tegmental

PSG

polysomnography

RBD

REM sleep behavior disorder

REM

rapid eye movement

Supplementary material

wmv file: 5254 kB

wmv file: 808 kB

wmv file: 688 kB

wmv file: 2281 kB

wmv file: 2134 kB

wmv file: 8914 kB

References

  1. AASM (2005) International classification of sleep disorders: diagnostic and coding manual, 2nd edn. American Academy of Sleep Medicine, WestchesterGoogle Scholar
  2. Cohen R, Shuper A et al. (2007) Familial benign neonatal sleep myoclonus. Pediatr Neurol 36(5):334–337CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Coulter DL, Allen RJ (1982) Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus. Arch Neurol 39(3):191–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Derry CP, Duncan JS et al. (2006) Paroxysmal motor disorders of sleep: the clinical spectrum and differentiation from epilepsy. Epilepsia 47(11):1775–1791CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Foldvary N, Caruso AC et al. (2000) Identifying montages that best detect electrographic seizure activity during polysomnography. Sleep 23(2):221–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Frank NC, Spirito A et al. (1997) The use of scheduled awakenings to eliminate childhood sleepwalking. J Pediatr Psychol 22(3):345–353CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hallmayer J, Faraco J et al. (2009) Narcolepsy is strongly associated with the T-cell receptor alpha locus. Nat Genet 41(6):708–711CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hoban TF (2003) Rhythmic movement disorder in children. CNS Spectr 8(2):135–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Houghton WC, Scammell TE et al. (2004) Pharmacotherapy for cataplexy. Sleep Med Rev 8(5):355–366CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Husain AM, Miller PP et al. (2001) Rem sleep behavior disorder: potential relationship to post-traumatic stress disorder. J Clin Neurophysiol 18(2):148–157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Iber C, Ancoli-Israel S et al. (2007) The AASM manual for the scoring of sleep and associated events: rules, terminology and technical specifications. American Academy of Sleep Medicine, WestchesterGoogle Scholar
  12. Kohyama J, Matsukura F et al. (2002) Rhythmic movement disorder: polysomnographic study and summary of reported cases. Brain Dev 24(1):33–38CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Macleod S, Ferrie C et al. (2005) Symptoms of narcolepsy in children misinterpreted as epilepsy. Epileptic Disord 7(1):13–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Manni R, Terzaghi M (2005) Rhythmic movements during sleep: a physiological and pathological profile. Neurol Sci 26(Suppl 3):s181–s185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mignot E, Lammers GJ et al. (2002) The role of cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin measurement in the diagnosis of narcolepsy and other hypersomnias. Arch Neurol 59(10):1553–1562CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Peterson PC, Husain AM (2008) Pediatric narcolepsy. Brain Dev 30(10):609–623CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Postuma RB, Gagnon JF et al. (2009) Quantifying the risk of neurodegenerative disease in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology 72(15):1296–1300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Schenck CH, Bundlie SR et al. (1986) Chronic behavioral disorders of human REM sleep: a new category of parasomnia. Sleep 9(2):293–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Schenck CH, Bundlie SR et al. (1996) Delayed emergence of a parkinsonian disorder in 38% of 29 older men initially diagnosed with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Neurology 46(2):388–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Silber MH, Krahn LE et al. (2004) Sleep medicine in clinical practice. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  21. Thannickal TC, Moore RY et al. (2000) Reduced number of hypocretin neurons in human narcolepsy. Neuron 27(3):469–474CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Vaughn BV, D’Cruz O (2007) Parasomnias and other nocturnal events. Continuum Lifelong Learning Neurol 13(3):225–247Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aatif M. Husain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine (Neurology)Duke University Medical Center; and Neurodiagnostic Center, Veterans Affairs Medical CenterDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations