Advertisement

Childhood Absence Epilepsy

  • Athanasios Covanis
Reference work entry

Historical Data of Absence Seizures

The first description of absence seizures was made by Poupart in 1705 (Tempkin 1971). Subsequently, Tissot (1770) referred to lapses between major attacks, followed by terms “absences” by Calmeil in 1824, “petit mal” by Esquirol in 1838 and “epilepsia mitior” by Reynolds 1861. In 1881 Gowers gave a more precise definition of absence seizures “without conspicuous convulsion,” Sauer in 1916 refers to them as pyknolepsy, and Brain in 1924 (Peterman 1945) stated the importance of hyperventilation as a test to induce absence seizures. Adie in 1924 associated pyknolepsy with childhood and good prognosis and Gibbs et al. in 1935 associated petit mal absences with 3 Hz SWDs in the EEG. Lennox in 1945 referred to the petit mal triad as absence, myoclonic, and akinetic seizures. The same year, tridione was used as the first antiabsence antiepileptic drug (AED). In recent years, the ILAE classification of absence seizures in 1981 and the syndrome...

Keywords

Febrile Seizure Absence Seizure Absence Epilepsy Myoclonic Jerk Nucleus Reticularis Thalamus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adie WJ (1924) Pyknolepsy: a form of epilepsy occurring in children, with good prognosis. Brain 47:96–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berg AT, Berkovic SF, Brodie MJ, Buchhalter J, Cross JH, van Emde Boas W, Engel J, French J, Glauser TA, Mathern GW, Moshe SL, Nordli DR, Plouin P, Scheffer IE (2010) Revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies: Report of the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology, 2005–2009. Epilepsia 51 (4): 676–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Calmeil LF (1924) De l’épilepsie etudiée sous le rapport de son siege et de son influence sur la production de l’aliénation mentale. Thesis, ParisGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen Y, Lu J, Pan H et al. (2003) Association between genetic variation of CACNA1H and childhood absence epilepsy. Ann Neurol 54(2):239–243CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chioza B, Everett K, Aschauer H et al. (2006) Evaluations of CACNA1H in European patients with childhood absence epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 68(2):177–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy (1981) Proposal for a revised clinical and electroencephalographic classification of epileptic seizures. Epilepsia 22:489–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy (1989) Proposal for revised classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes. Epilepsia 30:389–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Covanis A (1998) EEG and clinical correlates of early onset typical absences (<3 years). In: Majokowski J, Owczarek K, Zwolinski P (eds) Third European congress of epileptology. International proceedings Division. Monduzzi editore, pp 93–98Google Scholar
  9. Covanis A (2006) Hyperventilation-induced absence-like episodes. In: Panayiotopoulos CP (ed) A practical guide to childhood epilepsies: the UCB educational kit, vol 1. Medicinae, Oxford, pp 144–145Google Scholar
  10. Covanis A, Skiadas K, Loli N et al. (1992) Absence epilepsy: early prognostic signs. Seizure 1:281–289CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Covanis A, Pinto D, Skiadas K et al. (2005) Idiopathic Photosensitivity: dichotomy between Absence and Myoclonic seizure types. Epilepsia 46(Suppl 8):P 147Google Scholar
  12. Currier RD, Kooi KA, Sandman LJ (1963) Prognosis of pure petit mal. A follow-up study. Neurology (Minneap) 13:959–967Google Scholar
  13. Engel J Jr (2001) A proposed diagnostic scheme for people with epileptic seizures and with epilepsy: report of the ILAE Task Force on Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia 42:796–803CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Engel J Jr (2006) Report of the ILAE classification core group. Epilepsia 47:1558–1568CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Esuirol J (1838) De l’épilepsie. In: traité des maladies mentales, vol 1. Baillière Publishers, Paris, 274–355Google Scholar
  16. Fong GC, Shah PU, Gee MN et al. (1998) Childhood absence epilepsy with tonic-clonic seizures and electroencephalogram 3–4-Hz spike and multispike-slow wave complexes: linkage to chromosome 8q24. Am J Hum Genet 63(4):1117–1129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Everett K, Chioza B, Aicardi J et al. (2007) Linkage and association analysis of CACNG3 in childhood absence epilepsy. Eur J Human Genetics15:463–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gowers WR (1881) Epilepsies and other chronic convulsive disorders. Their causes, symptoms and treatment. Churchill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Gilbert FB (1966) The prognosis of petit mal. Brain 89:531–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gibbs FA, Davis H, Lennox WG (1935) The EEG in epilepsy and in conditions of impaired consciousness. Arch Neurol Psychiatr 34:1134–1148Google Scholar
  21. Gomora JC, Daud AN, Weiergraber M et al. (2001) Block of cloned human T-type calcium channels by succinimide antiepileptic drugs. Mol Pharmacol 60:1121–1132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hauser WA (1994) The prevalence and incidence of convulsive disorders in children. Epilepsia 35(Suppl 2):S1–S6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Hirose S, Mitsudome A, Okada M et al. (2005) Genetics of idiopathic epilepsies. Epilepsia 46(Suppl 1):38–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lagae L, Pauwels J, Monté CP et al. (2001) Frontal absences in children. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 5(6):243–251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lennox WG (1945) Α Petit Mal epilepsies. JAMA 129:1069–1073Google Scholar
  26. Loiseau P (1985) Childhood absence epilepsy. In: Roger J, Bureau M, Dravet et al.Epileptic syndromes. John Libby, London, pp 106–120Google Scholar
  27. Loiseau J, Loiseau P, Guyot et al. (1990) Survey of seizures disorders in the French southwest. I. Incidence of epileptic syndromes. Epilepsia 31:391–396CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lugaresi E, Pazzaglia P, Frank C et al. (1973) Evolution and prognosis of primary generalized epilepsies of the petit mal absence type. In: Lugaresi E, Pazzaglia P, Tassinari CA (eds) Evolution and prognosis of epilepsy. Aulo Gaggi, Bologna, pp 2–22Google Scholar
  29. Meeren HK, Pijn JP, Van Luijtelaar EL et al. (2002) Cortical focus drives widespread corticothalamic networks during spontaneous absence seizures in rats. J Neurosci 22:1480–1495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Meeren H, van Luijtelaar G, Lopes DS et al. (2005) Evolving concepts on the pathophysiology of absence seizures: the cortical focus theory. Arch Neurol 62:371–376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Panayiotopoulos CP (ed) (2007) A clinical guide to epileptic syndromes and their treatment, 2nd edn. Springer, London, pp 325–330Google Scholar
  32. Peterman MG (1945) Abstract of discussion on “petit mal epilepsies: their treatment with tridione”. JAMA 129:1074Google Scholar
  33. Reynolds JR (1861) Epilepsy, its symptoms, treatment. Churchill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Sasaki S, Huda K, Inoue T, Miyata M, Imoto K (2006) Impaired feedforward inhibition of the thalamocortical projection in epileptic Ca2+ channel mutant mice, tottering. J Neurosci 26(11):3056–3065CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Sauer H (1916) Űber gahäufte klein Anfälle bei Kindern (pyknolepsie). Mschr Psychiat Neurol 40:276–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tanaka M, Olsen RW, Medina MT et al. (2008) Hyperglycosylation and reduced GABA currents of mutated GABRB3 polypeptide in remitting childhood absence epilepsy. Am J Hum Genet 82(6):1249–1261CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Temkin O (1971) The falling sickness: a history of epilepsy from the Greeks to the beginning of modern neurology. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MDGoogle Scholar
  38. Tissot SA (1770) Traité de l’ épilepsie, faisant le Tome troisième du Traité des nerfs et de leurs maladies.Antoine Chapuis, LausanneGoogle Scholar
  39. Wallace RH, Marini C, Petrou S et al. (2001) Mutant GABA(A) receptor gamma2-subunit in childhood absence epilepsy and febrile seizures. Nat Genet 28(1):49–52CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Athanasios Covanis
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurology DepartmentThe Children’s Hospital ‘Aghia Sophia’AthensGreece

Personalised recommendations