WTE: Energy Contained in Solid Wastes

  • Dieter O. ReimannEmail author
Reference work entry
Part of the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology Series book series (ESSTS)



Air pollution control system of a plant


Best available technology (BAT). The most effective method for achieving a high level of protection for the environment, developed on a scale that allows implementation under technically and economically viable conditions (in the USA, called maximum achievable control technology: MACT)


Reference document on the best available techniques


Energy equivalence factor


MSW incineration, most commonly called waste to energy, or WTE


Municipal solid waste; waste from households as well as commercial, industrial, and institutional waste that, by its nature and composition, is similar to waste from households. This includes, e.g., bulky waste, residual waste after recycling operations


Refuse-derived fuel. The categories of waste that may be treated in a WTE plant are listed in the permit by the competent authority


Energy efficiency factor determines whether a WTE plant can be classified as a recovery operation, under...


Primary Literature

  1. 1.
    Reimann DO, Hämmerli H (1995) Verbrennungstechnik für Abfälle in Theorie und Praxis (Waste incineration in theory and practice). Schriftenreihe Umweltschutz, Bamberg p 80ff (out of print)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Reimann DO (1991) Rostfeuerungen zur Abfallverbrennung (Grate fired combustion of waste). EF Verlag, Berlin. ISBN: 3-924511-55-1Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    PE International and CEWEP (2008) Life cycle assessment of WTE plants in Europe: Study, Table 2.2.,223.html (available on request from CEWEP)
  4. 4.
    European Commission (2006) BREF waste incineration (WI) for Integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC) EIPPC Bureau Sevilla.
  5. 5.
    European Parliament and Council (2000) EU waste incineration directive 2000/76/EC. Off J L332:0091-0111. 28 Dec 2000.
  6. 6.
    CEWEP (2006) CEWEP energy report (Status 2001–2004) by Reimann DO, p 5ff.,223.html
  7. 7.
    Reimann DO (2004) Energetische Bilanzierung von Müllverbrennungsanlagen (Balancing of energy from waste incineration plants). Erich Schmitt, Berlin. ISBN: 3 503 08324 3Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Reimann DO (2010) R1 as efficiency indicator: status quo and optimization potential. In: Second conference on biomass and waste combustion, Oslo.
  9. 9.
    CEWEP (2009) CEWEP energy report II (Status 2004–2007) by Reimann DO, p 4ff.,223.html
  10. 10.
    European Parliament and Council (2008) Waste framework directive 2008/98/EC. Annex I and II. Off J L312:3-30. 22 Nov 2008.
  11. 11.
    Reimann DO (2003) Ermittlung und Bedeutung von Kennzahlen zur Energie und Anlagennutzung sowie zu Wirkungsgraden für die Abfallverbrennung (Determination and meaning of identification numbers for energy and plants as well as efficiencies of waste incineration). Müll und Abfall, Heft 10:512–520Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    European Commission (2010) Draft of the EU-Guidance for R1 formula, Version April 2011Google Scholar

Books and Reviews

  1. Euroheat & Power (2005) District heating and cooling – country by country/2005 survey. Euroheat & Power, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  2. IPCC-Directive (2000) Good practice guidance and uncertainty management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories – IPCC/OECD/IEA Programme. WMO Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change UNEP, Bern, p 55ffGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants (CEWEP)BambergGermany

Section editors and affiliations

  • Athanasios C. Bourtsalas
    • 1
  • Nickolas Themelis
    • 2
  1. 1.Earth Engineering CenterColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Columbia UniversityEarth and Environmental EngineeringNew YorkUSA

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