Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Low-Cost Sensors for Indoor and Outdoor Pollution

  • Louise Bøge Frederickson
  • Emma Amalie Petersen-Sonn
  • Yuwei Shen
  • Ole Hertel
  • Youwei Hong
  • Johan Schmidt
  • Matthew S. JohnsonEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2493-6_1084-1


Band gap

A solid will have a density of electronic states as a function of energy. For example, a certain solid may have a band of fully occupied states, a gap or energy range in which there are no states, and at higher energies, an unoccupied band. This gap is called the bandgap. Electrons may be thermally excited from the fully occupied band into the unoccupied band, resulting in limited conductivity; the solid is then a semiconductor. A solid with a large bandgap is an insulator and with no bandgap, a conductor. The top of the occupied states is called the Fermi level [1].

Dynamic range

The range of performance of a sensor: the analyte concentration range between the highest observable concentration and the detection limit [2].

Explosion range and limits

The explosion range specifies the concentration range of a species in air, over which a given compound can burn or explode. This range extends from the lower to the upper explosive limit and is often given in % v/v. The...

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louise Bøge Frederickson
    • 1
    • 2
  • Emma Amalie Petersen-Sonn
    • 1
  • Yuwei Shen
    • 1
  • Ole Hertel
    • 3
  • Youwei Hong
    • 4
  • Johan Schmidt
    • 2
  • Matthew S. Johnson
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagen ØDenmark
  2. 2.AirlabsCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Environmental ScienceAarhus UniversityRoskildeDenmark
  4. 4.Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of ScienceXiamenChina

Section editors and affiliations

  • Michael Evan Goodsite
    • 1
  • Matthew Stanley Johnson
    • 2
  • Ole Hertel
    • 3
  • Nanna Rahbek Jørgensen
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of ECMSThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Environmental ScienceAarhus UniversityRoskildeDenmark
  4. 4.Department of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdense MDenmark