Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications: Life Cycle Analysis
The global electric vehicle (EV) fleet grew from 0.18 million vehicles in 2012  to more than 3 million vehicles in 2017 . Depending on the global EV deployment outlook, the fleet is expected to reach 130 million to 228 million EVs by 2030 owing to existing and announced policies encouraging EV adoption worldwide and continued battery technology improvements to increase performance and reduce cost . In 2017, the electric vehicle initiative (EVI) launched the EV30@30 campaign, of which the aim is for EVs to reach 30% of the share of total vehicle sales by 2030 in all EVI member countries. As of September 2018, 11 countries – which collectively have accounted for 72% of 2017 global EV sales – had joined the campaign, along with 19 organizations and companies .
The unprecedented endorsement for EVs all over the world arises from EV’s potential to meet the world’s increasing mobility needs without contributing additional damage to the environment and to society [4, 5...
This research was supported by the Vehicle Technologies Office of the US Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. The views and opinions of the authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the US Government or any agency thereof. Neither the US Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.
- 1.IEA (International Energy Agency) (2016) Global EV outlook 2016. Available at https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/Global_EV_Outlook_2016.pdf. Accessed 9 Dec 2018
- 2.IEA (2018) Global EV outlook 2018. Available at https://webstore.iea.org/global-ev-outlook-2018. Accessed 9 Dec 2018
- 3.EVI (Electric Vehicle Initiative) (2018) EV30@30 campaign. Available at https://www.iea.org/media/topics/transport/3030CampaignDocumentFinal.pdf. Accessed 9 Dec 2018
- 8.Elgowainy A, Han J, Ward J, Joseck F, Gohlke D, Lindauer A, Ramsden T, Biddy M, Alexander M, Barnhart S, Sutherland I, Verduzco L, Wallington TJ (2016) Cradle-to-grave lifecycle analysis of U.S. light-duty vehicle-fuel pathways: a greenhouse gas emissions and economic assessment of current (2015) and future (2025–2030) technologies. ANL/ESD-16/7. Available at https://greet.es.anl.gov/publication-c2g-2016-report. Accessed 11 Dec 2018
- 14.Pillot C (2018) The rechargeable battery market and main trends 2017–2025. Presentation at 2018 international battery seminar & exhibit. March 26–29, 2018, Fort Lauderdale, FloridaGoogle Scholar
- 16.Argonne National Laboratory (2018) BatPaC: a lithium-ion battery performance and cost model for electric-drive vehicles. Available at http://www.cse.anl.gov/batpac/. Accessed 11 Dec 2018
- 22.Dai Q, Dunn J, Kelly JC, Elgowainy A (2017) Update of life cycle analysis of lithium-ion batteries in the GREET model. Available at https://greet.es.anl.gov/publication-Li_battery_update_2017. Accessed 11 Dec 2018
- 24.Argonne National Laboratory (2018) GREET model: the greenhous gases, regulated emissions, and energy use in transportation model. Available at https://greet.es.anl.gov/. Accessed 11 Dec 2018
- 25.Dunn J, Gaines L, Barnes M, Sullivan J, Wang M (2014) Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle. ANL/ESD/12-3 Rev. Available at https://greet.es.anl.gov/publication-li-ion. Accessed 11 Dec 2018
- 28.China Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the Ministry of Transport, the Ministry of Commerce, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine, and the National Energy Administration (2018) Provisional regulation on the recycling and reuse of traction batteries from new energy vehicles. Available at: http://www.miit.gov.cn.http.80.36212d7777.proxy.miit.w06.cn/n1146295/n1652858/n1652930/n3757016/c6068823/content.html. Accessed 25 Sep 2019
- 32.Ellingsen LA-W, Hung CR, Strømman AH (2017) Identifying key assumptions and differences in life cycle assessment studies of lithium-ion traction batteries with focus on greenhouse gas emissions. Transp Res Part D: Transp Environ 55:82–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2017.06.028CrossRefGoogle Scholar