Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

Living Edition
| Editors: Robert A. Meyers

Lithium-Ion Batteries for Automotive Applications: Life Cycle Analysis

  • Qiang DaiEmail author
  • Jarod C. Kelly
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-2493-6_1081-1


The global electric vehicle (EV) fleet grew from 0.18 million vehicles in 2012 [1] to more than 3 million vehicles in 2017 [2]. Depending on the global EV deployment outlook, the fleet is expected to reach 130 million to 228 million EVs by 2030 owing to existing and announced policies encouraging EV adoption worldwide and continued battery technology improvements to increase performance and reduce cost [2]. In 2017, the electric vehicle initiative (EVI) launched the EV30@30 campaign, of which the aim is for EVs to reach 30% of the share of total vehicle sales by 2030 in all EVI member countries. As of September 2018, 11 countries – which collectively have accounted for 72% of 2017 global EV sales – had joined the campaign, along with 19 organizations and companies [3].

The unprecedented endorsement for EVs all over the world arises from EV’s potential to meet the world’s increasing mobility needs without contributing additional damage to the environment and to society [4, 5...

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This research was supported by the Vehicle Technologies Office of the US Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. The views and opinions of the authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the US Government or any agency thereof. Neither the US Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, expressed or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Systems Assessment Center, Energy Systems DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Amgad Elgowainy
    • 1
  1. 1.Energy Systems DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneUSA