Encyclopedia of AIDS

Living Edition
| Editors: Thomas J. Hope, Douglas Richman, Mario Stevenson

Mucosal Immunity to HIV-1

  • Barbara L. ShacklettEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9610-6_197-1


Mucosal immunity refers to innate and adaptive immune responses that defend mucosal surfaces, which are the surfaces of the body that line passageways exposed to the external environment, such as the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and reproductive tracts. These defenses protect the body against potentially pathogenic microbes, including HIV-1. This review focuses on immune defenses in the female reproductive tract, the male reproductive tract, and the gastrointestinal tract, which are the major portals of entry for HIV-1.

Female Reproductive Tract

FRT and HIV-1 transmission (HIV-1 Sexual Transmission, Overview). Women (Women, Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS) account for approximately half of the 34 million individuals with HIV-1; nevertheless, transmission via the female reproductive tract (FRT) (Identifying Opportunities to Block HIV-1 Transmission in the Female Genital Tract) is relatively inefficient, with an estimated relative probability of 1 transmission per 200–2,000...


Sexually Transmitted Infection Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Male Circumcision Female Reproductive Tract Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical Microbiology and ImmunologySchool of Medicine, University of California, DavisDavisUSA