South, Southeast, and East Asia-Specific Characteristics of HIV/AIDS Epidemic
An estimated five million people are living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in Asia as of early 2015. While the characteristics of the HIV epidemic in Asia vary from country to country, there are four major transmission routes, including commercial sex work, unprotected sex with commercial sex workers, needle sharing among persons who inject drugs (PWID), and unprotected sex among men who have sex with men (MSM) (AVERT 2015).
Compared to Africa, the Americas, and Europe, the HIV epidemic in Asian countries started a decade later. In the early to mid-1980s, while other parts of the world began to tackle the severe HIV epidemic, Asian prevalence rates were exceedingly low, though this changed quickly in the early 1990s. Although the overall HIV prevalence is still much lower compared to countries in southern Africa, Asia’s huge population makes the absolute number of PLHIV large.
With declining rates of transmission among PWID due to expanded needle/syringe exchange and, in...
KeywordsMigrant Worker Condomless Anal Intercourse Indochina Peninsula Sexual Health Service Landlocked Country
- AVERT. HIV and AIDS in Asia. 2015. Retrieved Feburary 18, 2015, from http://www.avert.org/hiv-and-aids-asia.htm.
- Celentano DD, Nelson KE, Lyles CM, Beyrer C, Eiumtrakul S, Go VF, Kuntolbutra S, Khamboonruang C. Decreasing incidence of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases in young Thai men: evidence for success of the HIV/AIDS control and prevention program. AIDS. 1998;12(5):F29–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Colby DJ, Oldenburg CE, Nguyen T, Closson EF, Biello KB, Mayer KH, Mimiaga MJ. HIV, hepatitis C, and other sexually transmitted infections among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. AIDS Behav. 2015. [Epub ahead of print Nov 12] PubMed PMID: 26563761.Google Scholar
- Le TT, Nguyen QC, Tran HT, Schwandt M, Lim HJ. Correlates of HIV infection among street-based and venue-based sex workers in Vietnam. Int J STD AIDS. 2015b pii: 0956462415608556 [Sep 29 Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26424161.Google Scholar
- Munkhbaatar S, Aumakhan B, Jantsansengee B, Azyei I, Sanjaajamts Z, Badrakh J, Sovd T, Stromdahl S, Baral S, Amindavaa O. HIV and sexually transmitted infection-related risks among female sex workers in Mongolia: second-generation surveillance survey, 2011–2012. Sex Transm Infect. 2014;90(6):463–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- NHFPC. 2014 China AIDS response progress report. 2014. Retrieved from http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/documents/CHN_narrative_report_2014.pdf.
- Pham QD, Nguyen TV, Nguyen PD, Le SH, Tran AT, Nguyen LT, Wilson DP, Zhang L. Men who have sex with men in southern Vietnam report high levels of substance use and sexual risk behaviours but underutilise HIV testing services: a cross-sectional study. Sex Transm Infect. 2015;91(3):178–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Samo RN, Altaf A, Agha A, Pasha O, Rozi S, Memon A, Azam S, Blevins M, Vermund SH, Shah SA. High HIV incidence among persons who inject drugs in Pakistan: greater risk with needle sharing and injecting frequently among the homeless. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e81715.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Swe LA, Rashid A. HIV prevalence among the female sex workers in major cities in Myanmar and the risk behaviors associated with it. HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2013;5:223–30. doi:10.2147/HIV.S50171.Google Scholar
- UNAIDS. Regional Fact Sheet 2012: Asia and the Pacific. 2012. Retrieved from http://www.avert.org/hiv-and-aids-asia.htm#footnote9_tzoldjt
- UNAIDS. HIV in Asia and the Pacific UNAIDS report 2013. Joint United Nations Programmes on HIV/AIDS. 2013.Google Scholar
- van Griensven F, Holtz TH, Thienkrua W, Chonwattana W, Wimonsate W, Chaikummao S, Varangrat A, Chemnasiri T, Sukwicha W, Curlin ME, Samandari T, Chitwarakorn A, Mock PA. Temporal trends in HIV-1 incidence and risk behaviours in men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand, 2006-13: an observational study. Lancet HIV. 2015;2(2):e64–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vun MC, Fujita M, Rathavy T, Eang MT, Sopheap S, Sovannarith S, Chhorvann C, Vanthy L, Sopheap O, Welle E, Ferradini L, Sedtha C, Bunna S, Verbruggen R. Achieving universal access and moving towards elimination of new HIV infections in Cambodia. J Int AIDS Soc. 2014;17:18905.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF. Global HIV/AIDS response: epidemic update and health sector progress towards universal access 2011. 2011. http://www.avert.org/hiv-and-aids-asia.htm#footnote9_tzoldjt. Accessed 31 Dec 2015.