Ice Cauldron

Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9213-9_192-1

Definition

A depression in the surface of a glacier, usually formed by melting of ice at its bottom.

Synonyms

Description

Ice cauldrons are circular or elongated depressions in glaciers, often bound by a set of concentric crevasses. In some cases the depressions may reach to the base of the glacier. Ice cauldrons usually occur in areas of subglacial geothermal activity and during volcanic eruptions under glaciers. The term has been used for formations ranging from shallow crevasse-free depressions to deep heavily crevassed holes, sometimes bounded by vertical ice walls. The width of ice cauldrons ranges from <100 m to 10 km and their depth varies from ~10 m to 200–300 m (Björnsson 1976, 2003; Gudmundsson et al. 2007; Levy et al. 2010).

Morphometry

Ranging from shallow (~10 m) depressions that may be crevasse-free to formations several hundred meters deep with both concentric crevasses and collapse structures bounded by vertical ice walls. Width...

Keywords

Volcanic Eruption Geothermal Area Geothermal Activity Summit Eruption Basal Melting 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Björnsson H (1976) Subglacial water reservoirs, jökulhlaups and volcanic eruptions. Jökull 25:1–15Google Scholar
  2. Björnsson H (1988) Hydrology of ice caps in volcanic regions. Soc Sci Islandica 45:139Google Scholar
  3. Björnsson H (2003) Subglacial lakes and jökulhlaups in Iceland. Global and Planetary Change 35:255–271Google Scholar
  4. Björnsson H, Pálsson F, Gudmundsson MT (2000) Surface and bedrock topography of the Mýrdalsjökull ice cap, Iceland: the Katla caldera, eruption sites and routes of jökulhlaups. Jökull 49:29–46Google Scholar
  5. Blankenship DD, Bell RE, Hodge SM, Brozena JM, Behrendt JC, Finn C (1993) Active volcanism beneath the West Antarctic ice sheet and implications for ice-sheet stability. Nature 361:526–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bleick HA, Coombs ML, Bull KF, Wessels RL (2013) Volcano-ice interactions precursory to the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. J Volc Geoth Res 259:373–388Google Scholar
  7. Coombs ML, Neal CA, Wessels RL, McGimsey RG (2006) Geothermal disruption of summit glaciers at Mount Spurr Volcano, 2004–6: an unusual manifestation of volcanic unrest. U.S. Geol Surv Prof Pap 1732-B, p. 33Google Scholar
  8. Gudmundsson MT (2005) Chapter 6: subglacial volcanic activity in Iceland. In: Caseldine CJ, Russell A, Hardardóttir J, Knudsen Ó (eds) Iceland: modern processes, past environments. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 127–151Google Scholar
  9. Gudmundsson MT, Björnsson H (1991) Eruptions in Grímsvötn 1934–1991. Jökull 41:21–46Google Scholar
  10. Gudmundsson MT, Sigmundsson F, Björnsson H (1997) Ice-volcano interaction of the 1996 Gjálp subglacial eruption, Vatnajökull, Iceland. Nature 389:954–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gudmundsson MT, Sigmundsson F, Björnsson H, Högnadóttir T (2004) The 1996 eruption at Gjálp, Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland: efficiency of heat transfer, ice deformation and subglacial water pressure. Bull Volcanol 66:46–65. doi:10.1007/s00445-003-0295-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gudmundsson MT, Högnadóttir Þ, Kristinsson AB, Gudbjörnsson S (2007) Geothermal activity in the subglacial Katla caldera, Iceland, 1999–2005, studied with radar altimetry. Ann Glaciol 45:66–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jakobsson SP, Gudmundsson MT (2008) Subglacial and intraglacial volcanic formations in Iceland. Jökull 58:179–197Google Scholar
  14. Jarosch AH, Gudmundsson MT (2007) Numerical studies of ice flow over subglacial geothermal heat sources at Grímsvötn, Iceland, using the full Stokes equations. J Geophys Res 112(F2), F02008. doi:10.1029/2006JF000540Google Scholar
  15. Jarosch AH, Gudmundsson MT, Högnadóttir T, Axelsson G (2008) The progressive cooling of the hyaloclastite ridge at Gjálp, Iceland, 1996–2005. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 170:218–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jude-Eton TC, Thordarson T, Gudmundsson MT, Oddsson B (2012) Dynamics, stratigraphy and proximal dispersal of supraglacial tephra during the ice-confined 2004 eruption at Grímsvötn volcano. Iceland Bull Volc 74:1057–1082. doi:10.1007/s00445-012-0583-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Levy JS, Head JW, Fassett CI, Fountain AG (2010) Candidate volcanic ice-cauldrons on Mars: estimates of ice melt, magma volume, and astrobiological implications. 41st Lunar Planet Sci Conf, abstract #1054, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  18. Magnússon E, Gudmundsson MT, Sigurdsson G, Roberts MJ, Höskuldsson F, Oddsson B (2012) Ice-volcano interactions during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, as revealed by airborne radar. J Geophys Res 117:B07405. doi:10.1029/2012JB009250Google Scholar
  19. Naranjo JA, Moreno H, Banks NG (1993) La erupción del volcán Hudson en 1991 (46°S), Región XI, Aisén, Chile. Servic Nac Geol Miner Chile Bol 44:1–50Google Scholar
  20. Sturkell E, Einarsson P, Roberts MJ, Geirsson H, Gudmundsson MT, Sigmundsson F, Pinel V, Gudmundsson GB, Ólafsson H, Stefánsson R (2008) Seismic and geodetic insights into magma accumulation at Katla subglacial volcano, Iceland: 1999 to 2005. J Geophys Res 113:B03212. doi:10.1029/2006JB004851Google Scholar
  21. Thomas C (1997) Is tyre Macula an ice cauldron? Lunar Planet Sci Conf, XXVIII, abstract #1005, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  22. Thorarinsson S (1953) The Grímsvötn expedition June-July 1953. Jökull 3:6–23Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Earth SciencesUniversity of IcelandReykjavikIceland