Encyclopedia of Medical Immunology

Living Edition
| Editors: Ian MacKay, Noel R. Rose

Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of Infancy

  • Javier ChinenEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9209-2_42-1




Transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy (THI) is defined by low serum IgG levels in infants, after excluding other known immunodeficiencies such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) and secondary causes, such as protein-loss enteropathy. In THI, serum IgG levels usually reach normal range during childhood.

The International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) defines THI when a child presents with serum IgG and IgA levels lower than two standard deviations below the mean for age, with conserved ability to develop antibodies to vaccines (Bousfiha et al. 2018). The European Society for Immunodeficiencies (ESID) has a working definition of THI used for registry purposes (Seidel et al. 2019), for patients who present IgG below age-related normal value in the first 3 years of life, exclusion of defined causes of hypogammaglobulinemia, and spontaneous resolution at about the fourth birthday.

Because most children with THI would not achieve normal serum IgG...

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of PediatricsBaylor College of Medicine, Texas Children’s HospitalHoustonUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Klaus Warnatz
    • 1
  • Joris M. van Montfrans
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Chronic ImmunodeficiencyUniversity Medical Center and University of FreiburgFreiburgGermany
  2. 2.UMC UtrechtUtrechtNetherlands