Encyclopedia of Database Systems

2018 Edition
| Editors: Ling Liu, M. Tamer Özsu

Clinical Ontologies

  • Yves A. Lussier
  • James L. Chen
Reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-8265-9_62

Synonyms

Clinical classifications; Clinical nomenclatures; Clinical terminologies

Definition

An ontology is a formal representation of a set of heterogeneous concepts. However, in the life sciences, the term clinical ontology has also been more broadly defined as also comprising all forms of classified terminologies, including classifications and nomenclatures. Clinical ontologies provide not only a controlled vocabulary but also relationships among concepts allowing computer reasoning such that different parties, like physicians and insurers, can efficiently answer complex queries.

Historical Background

As the life sciences integrates increasingly sophisticated systems of patient management, different means of data representation have had to keep pace to support user systems. Simultaneously, the explosion of genetic information from breakthroughs from the Human Genome Project and gene chip technology have further expedited the need for robust, scalable platforms for handling...

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Recommended Reading

  1. 1.
    American Medical Association. Cited; Available at: http://www.cptnetwork.com
  2. 2.
    American Psychiatric Association. Cited; Available at: http://www.psych.org/MainMenu/Research/DSMIV.aspx
  3. 3.
    Cimino JJ. Desiderata for controlled medical vocabularies in the twenty-first century. Methods Inf Med. 1998;37(4–5):394–403.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cimino JJ. In defense of the Desiderata. [comment]. J Biomed Inform. 2006;39(3):299–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gruber TR. Toward principles for the design of ontologies used for knowledge sharing. Int J Hum Comput Stud. 1995;43(4–5):907–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    I.H.T.S.D. Cited; Available from: http://www.ihtsdo.org/our-standards/snomed-ct
  7. 7.
    Khan AN et al. Standardizing laboratory data by mapping to LOINC. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2006;13(3):353–5.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mahner M, Kary M. What exactly are genomes, genotypes and phenotypes? and what about phenomes? J Theor Biol. 1997;186(1):55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Musen MA et al. PROTEGE-II: computer support for development of intelligent systems from libraries of components. Medinfo. 1995;8(Pt 1):766–70.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nelson SJ, Johnston D, Humphreys BL. Relationships in medicical subject headings. In: Carol AB, Rebecca G, editors. Relationships in the organization of knowledge. Dordecht: Kluwer; 2001. p. 171–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    World Health Organization. Cited; Available at: http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/
  12. 12.
    World Organization of National Colleges, Academies, and Academic Associations of General Practitioners/Family Physicians, ICPC. International classification of primary care. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1987.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ChicagoChicagoUSA

Section editors and affiliations

  • Vipul Kashyap
    • 1
  1. 1.Director, Clinical ProgramsCIGNA HealthcareBloomfieldUSA