Fact-oriented modeling; NIAM
Object-Role Modeling (ORM), also known as fact-oriented modeling, is a conceptual approach to modeling and querying the information semantics of business domains in terms of the underlying facts of interest, where all facts and rules may be verbalized in language readily understood by non-technical users of those business domains. Unlike Entity-Relationship (ER) modeling and Unified Modeling Language (UML) class diagrams, ORM treats all facts as relationships (unary, binary, ternary etc.). How facts are grouped into structures (e.g., attribute-based entity types, classes, relation schemes, XML schemas) is considered a design level, implementation issue that is irrelevant to the capturing of essential business semantics.
Avoiding attributes in the base model enhances semantic stability, populatability, and natural verbalization, facilitating communication with all stakeholders. For information modeling, fact-oriented graphical notations...
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