Alternative Dispute Resolution
Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) refers to any mode of dispute resolution that does not utilize the court system, such as arbitration, neutral assessment, conciliation, and mediation. Methods of ADR are different from one another, but share common points, notably the feature that a third party is involved and a less formal and complex framework than courts. The third party offers an opinion about the dispute to the disputants or chose a binding decision. In recent decades, many countries have adopted rules requiring parties to go through some form of ADR before resorting to trial. ADR programs currently operate in a wide variety of contexts: union-management negotiations, commercial contract disputes, divorce negotiations, etc. The utilization of ADR mechanisms is championed by parties and lawyers, as well as by politicians or judges. Parties and lawyers hope to withdraw from ADR a benefit in terms of time and costs. Politicians and judges seek to relieve congestion in...
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