Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience

Living Edition
| Editors: Dieter Jaeger, Ranu Jung

Predictive Coding

  • Michael Spratling
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7320-6_509-6

Definition

Predictive coding is both a technique for efficient information encoding and a method for performing perceptual inference. It is commonly used to model information processing in the cerebral cortex.

Detailed Description

Predictive coding models of cortical function are typically implemented as hierarchical neural networks. Such networks contain alternating populations of “error-detecting” neurons and “prediction” neurons. Figure 1 shows the connectivity between a single pair of adjacent populations in such a hierarchy, for a very simplified case where there are only two neurons in each population. The inputs come from the thalamus or are the outputs of prediction neurons at preceding stages in the hierarchy. The activity of the prediction neurons encodes hypotheses about the causes underlying the inputs to the preceding population of error-detecting neurons. The activity of the error-detecting neurons encodes the discrepancy (or residual error) between the expected inputs...

Keywords

Residual Error Independent Component Analysis Perceptual Inference Nonnegative Matrix Factorization Predictive Code 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Further Reading

  1. Clark A (2013) Whatever next? Predictive brains, situated agents, and the future of cognitive science. Behav Brain Sci. doi:10.1017/S0140525X12000477Google Scholar
  2. Egner T, Monti JM, Summerfield C (2010) Expectation and surprise determine neural population responses in the ventral visual stream. J Neurosci 30(49):16601–16608. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2770-10.2010PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Huang Y, Rao RPN (2011) Predictive coding. WIREs Cogn Sci 2:580–593. doi:10.1002/wcs.142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kveraga K, Ghuman AS, Bar M (2007) Top-down predictions in the cognitive brain. Brain Cogn 65:145–168PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Spratling MW (2012) Unsupervised learning of generative and discriminative weights encoding elementary image components in a predictive coding model of cortical function. Neural Comput 24(1):60–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of InformaticsKing’s College LondonStrand, LondonUK