Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience

Living Edition
| Editors: Dieter Jaeger, Ranu Jung

Pulse-Resonance Sounds

  • Roy D. PattersonEmail author
Living reference work entry

Latest version View entry history

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7320-6_430-6



Pulse-resonance sounds are the sounds that animals use to communicate at a distance, to declare their territories, and to attract mates (Fitch and Reby 2001). They form the basis of most of the calls produced by vertebrates (fish, frogs, birds, and mammals). The tones of orchestral instruments are pulse-resonance sounds (Fletcher and Rossing 1998) and the internal combustion engine produces a form of pulse-resonance sound. Pulse-resonance sounds are ubiquitous in the world around us and they are the interesting sounds of everyday life (Patterson et al. 2008). They are acoustically distinct from the inanimate sounds produced by turbulent air and water (wind and rain).

Detailed Description

The vowels of speech are pulse-resonance sounds and the waveforms of the vowels illustrate the properties of these sounds. Figure 1shows the waveform (a) and the magnitude spectrum (b) of an /a/ vowel. It sounds like the...


Automatic Speech Recognition Vocal Tract Speech Sound Just Noticeable Difference Spectral Envelope 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Assmann PF, Nearey TM (2008) Identification of frequency shifted vowels. J Acoust Soc Am 124(5):3203–3212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boersma P (2001) PRAAT: a system for doing phonetics by computer. Glot Int 5:341–345Google Scholar
  3. Cohen L (1993) The scale representation. IEEE Trans Signal Process 41(12):3275–3292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fant G (1970) Acoustic theory of speech production, 2nd edn. Mouton, ParisGoogle Scholar
  5. Fitch WT, Giedd J (1999) Morphology and development of the human vocal tract: a study using magnetic resonance imaging. J Acoust Soc Am 106:1511–1522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fitch WT, Reby D (2001) The descended larynx is not uniquely human. Proc R Soc Lond Ser B 268:1669–1675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fletcher NH, Rossing TD (1998) The physics of musical instruments. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Irino T, Patterson RD (1997) A time-domain, level-dependent auditory filter: the gammachirp. J Acoust Soc Am 101:412–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Irino T, Patterson RD (2002) Segregating information about the size and shape of the vocal tract using a time-domain auditory model: the stabilised wavelet-Mellin transform. Speech Commun 36:181–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Irino T, Patterson RD (2006) A dynamic compressive gammachirp auditory filterbank. IEEE Trans Audio Speech Lang Process 14:2222–2232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Irino T, Aoki Y, Kawahara H, Patterson RD (2012) Comparison of performance with voiced and whispered speech in word recognition and mean-formant-frequency discrimination. Speech Commun 54:998–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ives DT, Smith DRR, Patterson RD (2005) Discrimination of speaker size from syllable phrases. J Acoust Soc Am 118:3186–3822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kawahara H, Masuda-Katsuse I, de Cheveigné A (1999) Restructuring speech representations using pitch-adaptive time-frequency smoothing and instantaneous-frequency-based F0 extraction: possible role of repetitive structure in sounds. Speech Commun 27:187–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee S, Potamianos A, Narayanan S (1999) Acoustics of children’s speech: developmental changes of temporal and spectral parameters. J Acoust Soc Am 105:1455–1468PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Licklider JCR (1951) A duplex theory of pitch perception. Experientia 7(4):128–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Patterson RD (1994) The sound of a sinusoid: time-interval models. J Acoust Soc Am 96:1419–1428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Patterson RD, Irino T (2013) Size matters in hearing: how the auditory system normalizes the sounds of speech and music for source size. In: Fay RR, Popper AN (eds) Perspectives in auditory research. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Patterson RD, van Dinther R, Irino T (2007) The robustness of bio-acoustic communication and the role of normalization. In: Proceedings of the 19th international congress on acoustics. Madrid, pp 07–011Google Scholar
  19. Patterson RD, Smith DRR, van Dinther R, Walters TC (2008) Size information in the production and perception of communication sounds. In: Yost WA, Popper AN, Fay RR (eds) Auditory perception of sound sources. Springer, New York, pp 43–75Google Scholar
  20. Patterson RD, Gaudrain E, Walters TC (2010) The perception of family and register in musical tones. In: Jones MR, Fay RR, Popper AN (eds) Music perception. Springer, New York, pp 13–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Smith DRR, Patterson RD (2005) The interaction of glottal-pulse rate and vocal-tract length in judgements of speaker size, sex and age. J Acoust Soc Am 118:3177–3186PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Smith DRR, Patterson RD, Turner RE, Kawahara H, Irino T (2005) The processing and perception of size information in speech sounds. J Acoust Soc Am 117:305–318PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Turner RE, Walters TC, Monaghan JJM, Patterson RD (2009) A statistical formant-pattern model for estimating vocal-tract length from formant frequency data. J Acoust Soc Am 125:2374–2386PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Umesh S, Cohen L, Marinovic N, Nelson D (1999) Scale transform in speech analysis. IEEE Trans Speech Audio Process 7(1):40–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physiology Development and NeuroscienceUniversity of CambridgeCambridge, CambridgeshireUK