Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience

Living Edition
| Editors: Dieter Jaeger, Ranu Jung

Peripheral Nerves, Anatomy and Physiology of

  • Mario Romero-Ortega
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-7320-6_214-1

Definition

Peripheral nerves are formed by axonal extensions of neurons in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord (spinal nerves), brain stem (cranial nerves), or sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia (autonomic nerves) that connect the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) with the rest of the body to maintain homeostasis, mediate sensation, movement, and coordination. The 43 pairs of sensory and motor nerves in the human body are composed of bundles of axons embedded in a collagenous matrix (endoneurium), ensheathed by connective tissue (perineurium), and wrapped by an external connective layer (epineurium). The cellular components of peripheral nerves include Schwann cells, fibroblasts, endothelial-like cells, and macrophages (Stewart, 2003).

Detailed Description

Types of Peripheral Nerves

Peripheral nerves are also classified in reference to the main function that they serve, as either motor sensory or autonomic nerves.

Motor Nerves

This nerves are composed by fibers...

Keywords

Nerve Growth Factor Dorsal Root Ganglion Schwann Cell Nerve Regeneration Peripheral Nerve Injury 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Associate ProfessorBioengineering Department The University of Texas at DallasRichardsonUSA