Living Reference Work Entry

Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

pp 1-9

Date: Latest Version

Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations

  • Loet LeydesdorffAffiliated withUniversity of Amsterdam, Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR) Email author 


Entrepreneurial university; Innovation systems; Knowledge base; Reduction of uncertainty; Synergy


Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff (2000) further elaborated the Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations (cf. Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff 1995; Lowe 1982) into a model for studying knowledge-based economies. A series of workshops, conferences, and special issues of journals have been developed under this title since 1996. In various countries, the Triple Helix concept has also been used as an operational strategy for regional development and to further the knowledge-based economy, for example, in Sweden (Jacob 2006) and Ethiopia (Saad et al. 2008). In Brazil, the Triple Helix became a “movement” for generating incubators in the university context (Almeida 2005).

Normatively, a call for collaborations across institutional divides, and the awareness that the roles of partners in such collaborations are no longer fixed in a knowledge-based economy provides a neo-corpor ...

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