Encyclopedia of Behavioral Medicine

Living Edition
| Editors: Marc Gellman

Headaches, Types of: Cluster, Migraine, and Tension

  • Hiroe KikuchiEmail author
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6439-6_405-2


Cluster headache, migraine, and tension-type headache are three major types of primary headaches. Primary headaches are headaches with no apparent underlying organic disease process.


The International Classification of Headache Disorders, third edition (ICHD-3, Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society 2018), is a widely used classification of headaches, and it contains diagnostic criteria for headaches. Cluster headache, migraine, and tension-type headache are classified as primary headaches, and their diagnosis is based on the pain characteristics and associated symptoms. Generally, neuroimaging is not necessary for the diagnosis; however, it is considered to exclude underlying abnormalities of the brain in some cases. Assessment of psychosocial aspects is also important especially in migraine and tension-type headache because psychosocial factors can be precipitating and aggravating factors of headache and headache may affect...

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References and Further Reading

  1. Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. (2018). The international classification of headache disorders, 3rd edition. Cephalalgia, 38(1), 1–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Loder, E., & Rizzoli, P. (2008). Tension-type headache. British Medical Journal, 336, 88–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. May, A. (2005). Cluster headache: Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management. The Lancet, 366, 843–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Millea, P. J., & Brodie, J. J. (2002). Tension-type headache. American Family Physician, 66, 797–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Silberstein, S. D. (2004). Migraine. The Lancet, 363, 381–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychosomatic MedicineCenter Hospital, National Center for Global Health and MedicineTokyoJapan

Section editors and affiliations

  • Kazuhiro Yoshiuchi
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of TokyoDepartment of Stress Sciences & Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate School of MedicineBunkyo-kuJapan