Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Living Edition
| Editors: Fred R. Volkmar

Midazolam

  • Jonathan Kopel
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6435-8_102089-1

Synonyms

Definition

With increasing numbers of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) children, clinicians have investigated alternative pharmacological and behavioral interventions to minimize perioperative problems among ASD children (Taghizadeh et al. 2015). Currently, clonidine, dexmedetomidine, midazolam, and ketamine remain the first-line premedication therapies for ASD patients undergoing surgery (Taghizadeh et al. 2015). Midazolam is a benzodiazepine medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation. Several case reports showed midazolam is an effective premedication for mild ASD cases and exhibits comparable efficacy to other administered benzodiazepines (Capp et al. 2010; Jo et al. 2017; Pisalchaiyong et al. 2005; Seo et al. 2014; Shah et al. 2009; Van Der Walt and Moran 2001). However, ASD patients administered midazolam experienced several side effects including: “emergence phenomenon, disorientation, sensory and...

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References and Reading

  1. Capp, P. L., de Faria, M. E. J., Siqueira, S. R. D. T., Cillo, M. T. P., Prado, E. G. B., & de Siqueira, J. T. T. (2010). Special care dentistry: Midazolam conscious sedation for patients with neurological diseases. European Journal of Pediatric Dentistry, 11(4), 162–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Jo, C.-W., Park, C.-H., Lee, J.-H., & Kim, J.-H. (2017). Managing the behavior of a patient with autism by sedation via submucosal route during dental treatment. Journal of Dental Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 17(2), 157.  https://doi.org/10.17245/jdapm.2017.17.2.157.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Pisalchaiyong, T., Trairatvorakul, C., Jirakijja, J., & Yuktarnonda, W. (2005). Comparison of the effectiveness of oral diazepam and midazolam for the sedation of autistic patients during dental treatment. Pediatric Dentistry, 27(3), 198–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Seo, K. H., Jung, H. S., Kang, E. G., Kim, C. J., Rhee, H. Y., & Jeon, Y. S. (2014). Sedation using 5% lidocaine patches, midazolam and propofol in a combative, obese adolescent with severe autistic disorder undergoing brain magnetic resonance imaging: a case report. Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, 67(6), 421.  https://doi.org/10.4097/kjae.2014.67.6.421.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Shah, S., Shah, S., Apuya, J., Gopalakrishnan, S., & Martin, T. (2009). Combination of oral ketamine and midazolam as a premedication for a severely autistic and combative patient. Journal of Anesthesia, 23(1), 126–128.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00540-008-0685-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Taghizadeh, N., Davidson, A., Williams, K., & Story, D. (2015). Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and its perioperative management. Pediatric Anesthesia, 25(11), 1076–1084.  https://doi.org/10.1111/pan.12732.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Van Der Walt, J. H., & Moran, C. (2001). An audit of perioperative management of autistic children. Pediatric Anesthesia, 11(4), 401–408.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1460-9592.2001.00688.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC)LubbockUSA