Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Living Edition
| Editors: Fred R. Volkmar


  • Jonathan Kopel
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-6435-8_102089-1



With increasing numbers of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) children, clinicians have investigated alternative pharmacological and behavioral interventions to minimize perioperative problems among ASD children (Taghizadeh et al. 2015). Currently, clonidine, dexmedetomidine, midazolam, and ketamine remain the first-line premedication therapies for ASD patients undergoing surgery (Taghizadeh et al. 2015). Midazolam is a benzodiazepine medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation. Several case reports showed midazolam is an effective premedication for mild ASD cases and exhibits comparable efficacy to other administered benzodiazepines (Capp et al. 2010; Jo et al. 2017; Pisalchaiyong et al. 2005; Seo et al. 2014; Shah et al. 2009; Van Der Walt and Moran 2001). However, ASD patients administered midazolam experienced several side effects including: “emergence phenomenon, disorientation, sensory and...

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References and Reading

  1. Capp, P. L., de Faria, M. E. J., Siqueira, S. R. D. T., Cillo, M. T. P., Prado, E. G. B., & de Siqueira, J. T. T. (2010). Special care dentistry: Midazolam conscious sedation for patients with neurological diseases. European Journal of Pediatric Dentistry, 11(4), 162–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC)LubbockUSA